Unicef Child Photography

August 30, 2018 4:23 am by crzybulkreviews
Unicef is calling on all south africans to unite behind the goal of zero violence against children in the run up to child protection week 28 may 3 june
Syrian refugee hakim and his sister amira wrap themselves up in a unicef
Unicef Child Photography

United Republic of Tanzania, 2010: Lina [NAME CHANGED], 16, who was born with HIV, has lost her parents and a younger brother to AIDS-related causes. Three years ago, Lina was denied admission to secondary school and felt her dreams were over.

“I did not get good grades because I was facing tough problems at home. We were orphans and very poor,” she explained. She now receives vocational training. “I think I will make a decent living and survive comfortably now,” she said.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1862/Noorani 20 July 2015

Zambia, 2009: With a 16 per cent HIV prevalence rate among adults, Zambia remains at the vortex of the AIDS epidemic. Still, it has made great strides, including in preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the virus.

The XIX International AIDS Conference, held 22–27 July 2012 in Washington, D.C., the United States of America, emphasizes the world’s capacity to end the epidemic. In Lusaka, an HIV-positive woman and her son participate in a PMTCT programme.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0714/Nesbitt 23 July 2012

Nepal 2015: Baby Nirman was born in the period between the two recent earthquakes in Nepal. “Someday, when we look back, we won’t remember this as a time of loss or earthquakes, but as when our first baby was born.

And he is a healthy baby,” says his father, Narayan Krishna Shivakoti. He and his wife lived about a kilometre from the second quake’s epicentre. Their home was destroyed and their poultry farm damaged during the disaster.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1505/Sokol 22 June 2015

Democratic Republic of Congo, 2008: Jeanne Kahindo stands with her baby in front of her home in Goma. Behind her are children and women displaced by the ongoing violence; they have been living with Jeanne for two months, sharing whatever food they can find.

By July 2009, fighting in the region had again intensified, with armed groups abusing civilians and attacking UN peacekeepers. Since 1998, some 5 million Congolese, half of them children, have died of conflict-related causes, including disease.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1312/Asselin 20 July 2009

South Sudan, 2015: Decades of civil war have left thousands of children malnourished, uneducated and destitute. UNICEF Advocate for Children Affected by War Ishmael Beah met with former child fighters in November 2015.

“They want peace, education and hope,” he said. At a UNICEF-supported school in Pibor State, Mr. Beah (left) talks with a child who was formerly both a cook and a fighter and saw three of his friends killed in battle.

©UNICEF/UNI202923/Holt 30 November 2015

Turkey, 2005: Today there are an estimated 214 million migrants worldwide, including workers who travel in search of greater income-earning opportunities. But frequent mobility poses unique challenges to migrant children, who may face limited access to education or need to work to help support their families.

UNICEF works globally to enable all children – including the most marginalized – to realize their rights. A girl at a camp for migrant workers, in Adana Province.©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-1203/LeMoyne 3 September 2012

Bangladesh, 2017: Ethnic Rohingya refugees arrive by boat in Cox’s Bazar, in Chittagong Division, after making the challenging journey from Myanmar. Since 25 August, more than 400,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh to escape the violence in troubled Rakhine State.

About 60 per cent of them are children. Many are sick and in need of immediate health care. Many also require other urgent help, including psychosocial support and protection. And the unprecedented influx continues.

©UNICEF/UN0119963/Brown 25 September 2017

China, 2013: Recovery efforts continue one month after a 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province on 20 April 2013. The disaster killed 196 people and injured more than 12,000 while dismantling homes and major infrastructure.

A displaced woman and her daughter seek temporary shelter in Baoxing County. Home to 60,000 people, the county suffered damage to over 60 per cent of its buildings.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0208/Heting 20 May 2013

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2006: Children stand in rubble outside a house destroyed by Israeli forces, in northern Gaza. Civilians, half them children, face continuing insecurity and hardship. Infrastructure, including hospitals and the region’s only power plant, have been damaged, disrupting vital services.

UNICEF is providing relief materials, including hygiene kits and family water kits, and is supporting psychosocial activities for traumatized children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-1093/Jadallah 17 August 2009

United Nations Headquarters, 2013: Education activist Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan speaks about the importance of education, particularly for girls, at a special UN Youth Assembly on her birthday, 16 July – declared as Malala Day.

Malala was shot by the Taliban last October for championing girls’ education in her country. Education is an essential human right, yet 57 million children worldwide are still out of school. “One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world,” Malala said.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0391/Markisz 22 July 2013

Ukraine, 2017: Third-grader Elizaveta, 9, attends school No. 2 – where tonnes of sandbags have been stacked in front of classroom windows to prevent them from shattering during the frequent shelling in Marinka District in Donetsk Region.

Thousands of children in eastern Ukraine have been affected by an upsurge in fighting, which has worsened the ongoing education crisis already affecting more than 600,000 children after nearly three years of conflict.

©UNICEF/UN052473/Hetman 13 February 2017

Yemen, 2010: Children sit in a UNICEF-supported centre for vulnerable children, in the conflict-affected Hajjah Governorate. Behind them, drawings depict people fleeing soldiers and child traffickers. As of late June 2011, Yemeni children continue to face high rates of malnutrition, wide gender disparities and increased regional conflicts, including violent responses to general protests.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2849/Stirton 4 July 2011

Italy, 2016: Refugee and migrant children are taking dangerous routes and face heightened risk of abuse, exploitation and trafficking as they flee to Europe to escape persecution and hardship. “We risked our lives to come here.

We crossed a sea,” Mohammad (left), 17, now in Sicily, said. “We do it, or we die.” He and six other Gambian boys waiting for a boat to take them from Libya to Italy named themselves the ‘Do it or die’ crew to reflect their determination to reach safety.

©UNICEF/UN020030/GilbertsonVII 20 June 2016

Mongolia, 2012: As climate change and shifting economics disrupt traditional ways of life, many nomadic herder families have migrated to urban areas. Ulaanbaatar, the capital, is now home to almost half the Mongolian population – a nearly 30 per cent increase from 2006.

These migrations are creating new challenges for children and their communities. Four-year-old P. Otgonjargal’s family herds reindeer in remote Khövsgöl Province.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1732/Sokol 29 April 2013

Yemen, 2015: A group of boys and a man watch a rooster land on rubble from a building destroyed in recent fighting, near Sana’a, the capital. By 13 April, over 121,200 people had been displaced by ongoing clashes, which have spread throughout 18 of the country’s 22 governorates.

UNICEF support has included airlifting nearly 92 tons of nutrition, health and water, sanitation and hygiene supplies that will reach people across the country.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0854/Hamoud 20 April 2015

Haiti, 2010: People displaced by the 12 January earthquake move into the Tabarre Issa camp, on the outskirts of Port-au-Prince. They have been relocated from camps that are at high risk of flooding and landslides during hurricane season.

United Nations agencies and partners continue to distribute thousands of tons of shelter items to those in need. Over 1.3 million people remain displaced at the peak of the storm season.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1219/LeMoyne 13 September 2010

Nigeria, 2009: A girl registers for a consultation at Specialist Hospital in the town of Bauchi. Malaria patients represent 46 per cent of the patients at the hospital. UNICEF, the World Health Organization, the Global Fund, USAID, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and other partners in the ‘Roll Back Malaria’ initiative aim to halve the global malaria burden by 2010.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0452/Gangale 7 September 2009

“The roofs and tree branches flew away. Water started coming in, things were flying everywhere”. See more Photo Essays >

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2010: A boy sits on a bicycle in Kaniaka Village, Katanga Province. Children continue to suffer the effects of ongoing conflict: One out of every seven children dies before reaching age five, and older children are frequently targets of sexual violence and forced recruitment into armed forces.

UNICEF is working to extend vital health services and immunization to all children, to reintegrate demobilized children back into society, and to assist child survivors of sexual violence.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0381/Asselin 2 May 2011

Bangladesh, 2009: Rozina, 11, has been out of school since her father’s business collapsed, leaving the family unable to afford her education. The number of primary-school-aged children missing out on schooling fell by 42 per cent between 2000 and 2012.

Still, worldwide, 58 million children of that age group – children like Rozina – are out of school. If current trends continue, 15 million girls and 10 million boys are unlikely ever to set foot in a classroom.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2601crop/Noorani 19 January 2015

Central African Republic, 2012: From 18-23 August, UNICEF Advocate Ishmael Beah met with recently released former child soldiers, at a transit centre in the northern town of N’Dele. A former child soldier himself, Beah counselled them: “When you are conditioned to function in war, it takes time to know that something else is possible.

I went through that myself.” The UNICEF-assisted centre is supporting the children’s reintegration with their communities.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0891/Sokol 27 August 2012

South Sudan, 2014: Today marks a tragic anniversary for South Sudan: one year since the eruption of violence that has left nearly 750,000 children internally displaced and forced more than 320,000 to seek refuge abroad.

Rates of malnutrition in children have more than doubled as a result of the conflict. In Jonglei State, a child’s feet are checked for oedema, a sign of severe acute malnutrition, during a UNICEF-supported nutrition screening programme.

©UNICEF/UNI176402/Holt 15 December 2014

Haiti, 2010: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and world renowned football player Leo Messi greets children at the UNICEF office in Port-au-Prince, six months after the 12 January earthquake that devastated Haiti.

The children live in a tent camp of some 50,000 displaced people. They participate in sports and psychosocial care programmes sponsored by the Haitian Olympic Committee, with support from UNICEF and other partners.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1394/Markisz 19 July 2010

Mali, 2014: Two adolescents search for gold at the Kekoro mining site. Large-scale mining projects account for much of Mali’s gold production, but the gold sector also remains dependent on small-scale, labour-intensive, low-wage mining.

In the largely unregulated work, many children labour alongside their parents to help support their families. Children complain of back problems caused by the strenuous work and of difficulty seeing or breathing because of exposure to dust.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-3388/Bindra 12 January 2015

Cameroon, 2009: A school wall is decorated with children’s handprints in the town of Bazzama. The school serves local children and refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR). Over 100,000 refugees and asylum-seekers from 30 countries are living in Cameroon, including 80,000 who have fled insecurity and recurrent armed conflict in CAR.

The influx of people is overwhelming services in host communities, including safe drinking water, schools and healthcare resources.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1724/Asselin 5 July 2010

Bangladesh, 2017: Atica (center), a 10-month-old Rohingya refugee recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), smiles as she is held by her mother alongside her sister Musaddeka (on left), 11, and a health worker at a UNICEF-supported malnutrition screening center in Moinerghona refugee camp, Cox’s Bazar district.

After days and weeks on the run, many refugees are arriving in the camps severely malnourished and close to 17,000 children under five need treatment.©UNICEF/UN0148021/Knowles-Coursin 8 January 2018

Ghana, 2008: A boy collects muddy water to sell in Savelugu-Nanton District. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 24 recognizes the right of each child to “the highest attainable standard of health” including “nutritious foods and clean drinking-water.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0895/Asselin 18 October 2010

China, 2010: International actress and newly appointed UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Maggie Cheung embraces an HIV-positive girl in Ruili City, in Yunnan Province. Appointed on 29 April, Ms. Cheung commented: “I have long respected the work of UNICEF in different parts of the world.

I am greatly honoured by this new role as a spokesperson and advocate for the most vulnerable children in China, and looking forward to helping to improve public awareness on critical issues facing children.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0781/Jerry 10 May 2010

Senegal, 2007: In Kolda Region, a woman breastfeeds her baby under an insecticide-treated mosquito net. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life plays an important role in preventing malnutrition and supporting the growth, health and development of children.

UNICEF supports the distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, and assists the prevention and treatment of malaria and other common childhood diseases.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1054/Asselin 9 March 2009

Japan 2011: 11 March 2012 marks the one-year anniversary of the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that devastated Japan’s Tohoku Region. UNICEF photography workshops gave 27 children in affected communities the opportunity to document the ongoing recovery and their own responses.

Participant Yuuna Sasaki, 8, photographed rubble in Miyagi Prefecture because, she explained, “every piece holds people’s memories. I don’t want them to be forgotten.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2265/Pirozzi 5 March 2012

China, 2008: Families mourn students who died when their primary school collapsed during the May 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province. The quake killed some 70,000 people and left millions homeless. Government rescue and rehabilitation costs exceed US $22 billion.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0551/Dean 22 September 2008

Thailand, 2018: Sompong Nayiana cradles his newborn daughter at Health Promotion Centre Region 1 in Chiang Mai Province. “I’ll have to return to Bangkok to work, so I won’t be able to raise her,” Mr.

Nayiana said. Fathers are one of the best child development resources, and their role needs to be fully recognized and utilized. UNICEF is calling for more support for fathers globally, including giving parents the time and resources they need to spend quality time with their children.

©UNICEF/UN0203795/Zehbrauskas 11 June 2018

Lebanon, 2013: (Left-right) cousins Hayat, 13, and Yamama, 10, share a tent with their families, in the informal Fayda settlement, in the Bekaa Valley. They participate in non-formal education activities in the encampment.

“My school in Syria was nice,” says Yamama … Here I go to school in a tent … But it doesn’t matter … What matters is that I am going to school.” Hayat says, “I wish I [could] go back to Syria and live like we used to because Syria is better than here.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1424/Noorani 24 February 2014

Viet Nam, 2009: Girls from an indigenous ethnic group attend school in Lao Cai Province. Although almost all eligible Vietnamese children attend primary school, an estimated one-fifth of ethnic minority children do not, due in part to the lack of trained bilingual teachers, limited bilingual curricula and inadequate infrastructure.

UNICEF is supporting the Ministry of Education and Training to provide bilingual education and to improve adolescent learning.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0244/Estey 27 April 2009

Iraq, 2016: A woman and her two young children flee Mosul to escape the ongoing fighting. Nearly 59,000 people – about 26,000 of whom are children – have been displaced as a result of intensified military operations that began a month ago to retake the city.

Of increasing concern is the ability of families affected by the conflict to reach safety and gain access to humanitarian assistance in the country – where 10 million people are already in need of emergency aid.

©UNICEF/UN040092/Romenzi 21 November 2016

Côte d’Ivoire, 2010: Children who live on the streets face myriad abuses and rights violations, including doing exploitative work to survive. Girls are especially vulnerable. A 15-year-old sex worker (foreground) sleeps on a bench at an outdoor restaurant in Abidjan.

Her clients are mostly older men; for protection, she lives among the adolescent boys who surround her.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2479/Kamber 6 August 2012

Uzbekistan, 2014: A doctor counsels Mubina [NAME CHANGED], 19, who is living with HIV, in Tashkent. While deaths from AIDS are falling among most age groups, progress is lagging behind for adolescents aged 10–19, for whom AIDS has become the second-leading cause of death globally.

The All In campaign aims to end the AIDS epidemic among adolescents, including by reaching them with HIV services that meet their unique needs and by engaging them in efforts to halt the virus’s spread.

©UNICEF/UNI164691/Noorani 17 February 2015

Sri Lanka, 2007: A boy touches a beam in his prison cell. During the war between the Government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), underage boys agreed to be incarcerated to avoid forced recruitment into the LTTE.

UNICEF continues to support schools and nutrition programmes in the former conflict areas.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2602/Haviv 16 November 2009

United Nations Headquarters, 2015: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador David Beckham stands with Noor Samee, 16, and Rodrigo Bustamante, 17, two adolescents from UNICEF’s Voices of Youth initiative, at the unveiling of the new digital installation ‘Assembly of Youth’.

Designed for UNICEF by Google, the installation brings to the heart of the United Nations General Assembly the voices of young people indicating the one thing they would like global leaders to change for children around the world.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2369/Tijerina 28 September 2015

Bangladesh, 2006: A boy with his mother. As the world welcomes 2014, a new year draws us closer to the 2015 deadline for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. As countries rally in common pursuit of the goals – including to reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and realize universal primary education – let us continue to accelerate our progress and embrace fresh opportunities to make a better world for every child, everywhere.

©UNICEF/BANA2006-01297/Siddique 6 January 2014

Mali, 2010: Mali is one of the world’s poorest countries, with more than 47 per cent of its citizens living on less than US$1 a day. Some 44 per cent of Malians have no access to safe water. UNICEF supports a range of initiatives to ensure safe water and sanitation practices – critical to child survival.

A girl fetches water at a village water point in Ambidédi Poste.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2399/Asselin 23 January 2012

Kenya, 2011: Women wait with their children at a nutrition screening site in the northern pastoralist Turkana District, where over 37 per cent of children suffer from global acute malnutrition. The growing drought crisis in the Horn of Africa, which includes Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti, is affecting over 10 million people.

More than 2 million children need assistance, and 500,000 are at imminent risk of dying.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1114/Holt 18 July 2011

South Sudan, 2012: A water point at a camp for returnees near Juba. Interdependence on the world’s finite water supply continues to increase with global population growth. World Water Week 2013, from 1 to 6 September, draws attention to the importance of cooperation at all levels of government and society to resolve resulting water challenges.

UNICEF is among United Nations agencies convening the event, which is hosted and organized annually by Sweden’s Stockholm International Water Institute.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1419/Sokol 2 September 2013

Uganda 2015: Sharon Namagembe, 10, breathes in harmful smoke at a wood-fueled cooking fire in her home, in Baka Village in Wakiso District. Household and outdoor air pollution contribute to hundreds of thousands of child deaths every year, particularly from pneumonia; and children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels such as wood are at a significantly increased risk of developing pneumonia.

About half of childhood pneumonia deaths worldwide are related to air pollution.©UNICEF/UNI194102/Ose 14 November 2016

Chad, 2016: Conflict, poverty and climate change have contributed to the dire humanitarian crisis unfolding in Africa’s Lake Chad Basin, where 2.6 million people – more than half of them children – have been forced to flee their homes.

Nigerian Khadija Kaku, 15, sheltering in the Dar Es Salam refugee camp in Chad’s Lac Region with her family, has had to move five times in the last six years because of drought and conflict. “I’m sure it is not over yet, ” the teenager said.

©UNICEF/UN028849/Tremeau 29 August 2016

Peru, 2017: Hermilinda Cabrera makes her way with her sons – Elias, 6-months, and Aldony, 9 – through the flood-ravaged area where her home once stood, in hard-hit Lima Region. Over 1 million Peruvians, including nearly 362,000 children, have been affected by floods and landslides during the country’s rainy season that began in January 2017 and a Coastal El Niño event since the end of January.

Many people are without water, shelter and other basics and are at risk of disease.©UNICEF/UN057588/Vilca 10 April 2017

Iraq, 2014: The Syrian conflict has created an education crisis. Security concerns, damaged learning facilities and other factors have forced nearly 2.3 million children to stop attending school in the Syrian Arab Republic, while over 60 per cent of the 735,000 school-aged refugee children are not enrolled in school.

In the Arbat refugee camp, Kurdistan Region, a girl stands in her tent classroom – part of UNICEF’s efforts to ensure that children have access to uninterrupted learning.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1347/Noorani 20 January 2014

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2008: A boy cries at the funeral of friends killed during Israel’s current military incursion into the Gaza Strip. As of 12 January 2009, 883 Gazans have been killed, at least 284 of them children.

UNICEF urges all parties to abide by their international legal obligation to ensure that children are protected and that they receive essential humanitarian supplies and support.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1405/El_Baba 12 January 2009

Kenya, 2010: Article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child – the world’s most endorsed human rights treaty – recognizes children’s right to education. Key to eradicating poverty, reducing child mortality and improving social stability, education must reach every child – including those in the remotest places.

Children attend class at Kangalita Primary School, in an isolated area of Turkana District.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-3101/Noorani 25 February 2013

Fiji, 2018: Vilisi, less than a day old, was born on New Year’s Day at the Colonial War Memorial Hospital in Suva. The day of birth and the first 28 days of life are the most dangerous in a child’s life.

The world has seen millions of young lives saved in the past 20 years. But, despite dramatic reductions in child mortality, 7,000 newborns still die every day. With millions of young lives at stake, the world can and must do better to give every child a fair chance to survive and thrive.

©UNICEF/UN0154492/Chute 2 January 2018

Mali, 2009: A girl lays out her school supplies at a UNICEF-supported child-friendly primary school in Guivagou Village. Child-friendly schools aim to provide safe, accessible education to children while improving both achievement and retention rates.

Such measures are particularly important in Mali, where only a fraction of children reach secondary school.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2384/Pirozzi 29 August 2011

South Sudan, 2016: Children and women without shelter are among nearly 15,000 people displaced by fighting who are waiting to register at an emergency food distribution site in Unity State. A UNICEF/WFP rapid response mission provided vaccinations, nutrition screenings, registration of children separated from their families, and other vital health, protection and education support in the hard-to-access area, which has no roads, health services, safe water or other basic infrastructure.

©UNICEF/UN016659/Holt 2 May 2016

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2008: Girls clean latrines at Mikonga Primary School in the town of Malueka. The school participates in the UNICEF-supported, government-implemented ‘Ecole Assainie’ (‘Healthy School’) initiative, which encourages the protection of safe water in nearly 800 villages and the provision of gender-separated toilets, hand-washing stations and hygiene education in over 300 schools.

Poor sanitation, poor hygiene and unsafe water kill 1.5 million children under five each year.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1020/Nesbitt 18 May 2009

Senegal, 2009: Mamadou Ba teaches women how to treat diarrhoea using oral rehydration salts, in Soudiane Village. Women attending the class will, in turn, educate friends and relatives in neighbouring villages.

The class is operated by Tostan, a UNICEF-supported NGO that promotes health and human rights through community engagement.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1075/Furrer 20 December 2010

Georgia, 2010: Sopio Gvenetadze and her children stand in their home in Kutaisi. A widow, Ms. Gvenetadze lives in extreme poverty, but with help from the Social Service Agency, she avoided institutionalizing her children.

In Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, it is estimated that over a million children are institutionalized due to poverty or disability. UNICEF supports programmes, such as family assistance and fostering, to reduce the number of children living in institutions.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-3037/Pirozzi 23 May 2011

Pakistan, 2009: At the height of the displacement crisis in May, children crowd around a truck distributing food at Jalozai Camp in North-West Frontier Province. Some 2.7 million people were displaced by conflict in the province.

A year later, tens of thousands of families remain vulnerable to ongoing violence. This insecurity has also directly affected humanitarian aid groups; NGO offices have been targeted in attacks.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0590/Ramoneda 1 March 2010

Iraq 2016: A girl looks out through a hole in a wall at a damaged school in Ramadi, in Anbar Governorate – which has been especially hard hit by conflict, violence and internal displacement. Some 3.3 million people in the country are currently displaced and over 10 million are in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of the country’s ongoing crisis.

About 1 million school-aged Iraqi children are internally displaced; 70 per cent of them have missed an entire year of education.©UNICEF/UN038011/Khuzaie 7 November 2016

Nicaragua, 2012: A girl from the indigenous Rama community stands outside her home, in South Atlantic Autonomous Region. Nearly a quarter of the region’s inhabitants are from indigenous and Afro-descendent communities.

For these often marginalized groups, the country’s lingering challenges are amplified; approximately 60 per cent live in extreme poverty, and their access to adequate housing, basic services and education remains severely limited.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1485/Dormino 4 February 2013

Afghanistan, 2007: Girls, members of the ethnic Hazara minority, carry dishes home in the village of Ragshad, in central Bamyan Province. Renewed violence impedes the area’s recovery from decades of war.

Forty to sixty per cent of children are stunted or chronically malnourished, and school enrolment for girls in rural areas is barely 30 per cent.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1181/Noorani 13 April 2009

Guinea, 2009: A child works in an abattoir in Conakry, the capital. Many children also live in the abattoir, some of them orphans or victims of trafficking. The work is dangerous, and children are often given the worst jobs.

Many are paid only with food. With widespread poverty, persistent food insecurity and recent political unrest, Guinea ranks among 20 countries that are the most dangerous for children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2200/Kamber 1 February 2010

Swaziland, 2009: Children clap at an assembly at a UNICEF-supported child-friendly school in Mbabane. On 20 November UNICEF launched the photography book ‘The Rights of Children’ to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

The book, with photographs by Giacomo Pirozzi, pays tribute to the daily joys and sorrows of children everywhere, making visible both the fulfillment and denial of child rights. To preview or buy the book, go to: www.

therightsofchildren.com©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1926/Pirozzi 23 November 2009

Pakistan, 2009: A displaced boy carries stones in the Jalozai Camp in North-West Frontier Province. The stones, salvaged from the ruins of dwellings, are used to keep tents in place, to build kitchen structures as well as walls for privacy.

More than 2.7 million people were displaced by the fighting between government and opposition forces during 2009. To date, 1.65 million people have been repatriated. ©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0833/Ramoneda 4 January 2010

Senegal, 2008: A child sleeps at a UNICEF-supported clinic in Casamance Region. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 3 of the Convention states, “In all actions concerning children… the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1781/Pirozzi 22 November 2010

Syrian Arab Republic, 2016: Two million people in Aleppo City lack access to safe drinking water as a result of escalating attacks and intense fighting. In western parts of the city, children displaced by the country’s ongoing conflict are again at serious risk due to new attacks and fighting; and 120,000 others in the east are cut off from crucial humanitarian aid.

Two boys with emergency water shelter in a makeshift tent on a highway in western Aleppo City after the latest attacks.©UNICEF/UN027713/Al-Issa 15 August 2016

Uganda, 2010: World AIDS Day – held annually on 1 December – focuses the world’s attention on the ongoing effects of HIV/AIDS and calls for increased international solidarity to stop new infections and provide treatment for all those who are HIV-positive.

Programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV have already helped avert more than 350,000 new child infections. A midwife speaks with an HIV-positive pregnant woman about treatment, in Nebbi District.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1483/Noorani 3 December 2012

Lebanon, 2013: A Syrian refugee boy stands in the snow in the Faida informal tented settlement in the Bekaa Valley, which has been hard hit by snow, rain and sub-zero temperatures. UNICEF is providing 88,000 winter clothing kits, containing warm clothes, gloves, scarves and boots, for vulnerable children in tented settlements and across the country, as well as vital winter-related emergency supplies to keep children and families warm, safe and healthy.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1297/Mussawir 30 December 2013

Colombia, 2016: Solanyi Vanesa Ortiz, 13, at home with her cousin Miguel in El Diviso, Nariño, dreams of being a teacher or a ballerina, or both. She and her brother, who are from Nariño’s indigenous Awá community, are living with her cousin’s family after their parents were killed by armed groups.

Over 250,000 children have been affected by the country’s conflict, despite peace talks begun three years ago to end 50 years of war – one of the longest in modern history.©UNICEF/UN013369/LeMoyne 21 March 2016

Libya, 2011: Boys explore a weapons storage facility in Tripoli. The facility was bombed months earlier, and the area is now littered with damaged weapons. Explosive remnants of war (ERW), including landmines, bombs and unexploded ordnance, remain a major threat.

UNICEF and partners are educating children about the dangers of ERW, and are supporting efforts to remove ERW from schools and residential areas.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1542/Diffidenti 10 October 2011

Haiti, 2008: A boy rescues a baby goat in the flooded village of Belanger, near the town of Cabaret. In late September 2008, children and families remained vulnerable in the aftermath of successive storms in the Caribbean, which wiped out homes, livelihoods and subsistence crops, affecting more than 620,000 people, almost one-third of them children.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0883/LeMoyne 11 May 2009

Nigeria, 2016: Saleh, 6, is vaccinated against polio in the Jiddari Polo area of Maiduguri, in Borno State. The re-emergence of polio after two years with no recorded cases in north-eastern Nigeria is of great concern in a region already in crisis.

A massive emergency polio immunization campaign in October targeted more than 30 million children in 18 high-risk states across the country, including in Borno – where four cases of polio have been confirmed since August 2016.

©UNICEF/UN036355/Abubakar 24 October 2016

Yemen, 2015: A girl pushes two younger children in a wheelbarrow in Sana’a, the capital. The conflict in Yemen continues to worsen. By mid-June, 21 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance, including 9.

9 million children, and 1 million people had been internally displaced. UNICEF has called for US$88.1 million to meet the needs of children and women, but as of 16 June, 80 per cent remained unfunded.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1292/Yasin 6 July 2015

Pakistan, 2009: The first day of classes at Aman Kot Girls’ Primary and Middle School in Swat District. Over 400 girls’ schools were damaged or destroyed during the recent fighting. By early August, more than 600,000 people from the Buner and Swat Districts had returned home out of the 2.

5 million who have been displaced by the conflict. However, insecurity remains a threat.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1260/Ramoneda 21 September 2009

South Sudan, 2012: People displaced by internal violence, in 2012. Children in the world’s youngest country are no strangers to conflict. Three years ago, the people of Southern Sudan voted for independence after decades of civil war between north and south.

For many in South Sudan, internal conflict has also been a source of threat. In mid-December 2013, violence erupted anew, leaving some 575,500 people displaced and escalating humanitarian needs among already vulnerable families.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0140/Sokol 27 January 2014

Chad, 2010: Women bring their children to a nutrition screening in Kanem, one of four regions affected by a large-scale malnutrition crisis. Chronic drought and subsequent food shortages have caused malnutrition in more than a quarter of all children, a rate far exceeding emergency levels.

Some 70,000 tons of food aid has been delivered to the area, but much more is needed. UNICEF is supporting therapeutic feeding and other life-saving assistance.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1160/Gangale 20 September 2010

India, 2006: In Uttar Pradesh, a UNICEF health worker checks the ink mark on the hand of six-month-old Rehnuma. The ink mark confirms that she has been vaccinated against polio. Over 137 million children under five were targeted for polio immunization during the recent National Immunization Days, an immunization campaign of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

India is one of four polio-endemic countries remaining in the world.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2649/Pietrasik 2 March 2009

Nicaragua, 2012: A girl leaves school in Puerto Cabezas. Despite significant strides, many girls still never fulfil their right to education, hampering their future opportunities. Societies also stand to gain – including through reductions in mortality and poverty – when girls are educated.

On 11 October, the 2013 International Day of the Girl Child is calling for increased innovation, ranging from new technologies to improved partnerships, to ensure that more girls attend and finish school.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1457/Dormino 11 October 2013

South Sudan, 2016: Children and their families are bearing the brunt of the dangers and hardships in the renewed conflict in the country. Thousands of South Sudanese displaced by the recent heavy fighting urgently need life-saving assistance.

A boy working to connect a hose is among internally displaced people helping to get desperately needed water into a storage tank, during a vital UNICEF-supported delivery at a United Nations Protection of Civilians site in Juba, the capital.

©UNICEF/UN025207/Irwin 18 July 2016

Jordan, 2015: Syrian children – mostly girls – read in a UNICEF-supported safe space in the Za’atari refugee camp, in Mafraq Governorate. The world’s 1.1 billion girls – including the millions in emergencies – are a source of power, energy and creativity.

The International Day of the Girl, observed annually on 11 October, highlights the need to address the challenges they face and to promote girls’ empowerment and fulfilment of their rights before, during and after crises.

©UNICEF/UN0120899/Rich 9 October 2017

Greece, 2017: Jalil, 15, from Afghanistan, plays outside a UNICEF-supported S.O.S. shelter in Athens assisting refugee and migrant children. He and his brother, who are unaccompanied, have been in limbo for 10 months – their hope of a better life stalled due to closed borders.

Concerted, united and timely action is vital to save the lives of refugee and migrant children before they reach Europe and to address the uncertainty and insecurity they endure on arrival.©UNICEF/UN057943/Gilbertson VII Photo 2 July 2018

Niger, 2012: Hadiza Lawali, 19, who is five months pregnant, holds antimalarial tablets during a prenatal examination, at a UNICEF-supported health centre in Zinder Region. Providing pregnant women with at least two doses of antimalarial medicine after the first trimester substantially reduces the risk of anaemia in mothers and of low birth weight – linked to inhibited development and higher rates of infant mortality – in newborns.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0326/Asselin 28 May 2012

Bolivia, 2014: [NAMES CHANGED] Gabriela, 13, and her 1 ½-year-old son, Juan, at the shelter where they now live, in Potosí Department. Abandoned by her mother, Gabriela had been living with her grandmother and never attended school.

She was molested several times while her grandmother was away at work and had her son after being raped by a 50-year-old neighbour. She now attends school and receives counselling. Gabriela’s therapists are searching for family members who may be able to help her.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0454/Markisz 5 May 2014

Ethiopia, 2008: A child receives care in a UNICEF-supported therapeutic feeding centre. Up to 6 million children under five years of age (almost half the entire under-five population) require assistance.

Drought, limited food and increased prices all contribute to a country-wide crisis.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0444/Tegene 20 October 2008

Bangladesh, 2007: An estimated 215 million children around the world are required to work – often in highly exploitative or hazardous conditions. The World Day against Child Labour, celebrated annually on 12 June, aims to focus attention on the worst forms of this violation of children’s rights and the need for continued action to eliminate it.

A boy burns garbage to extract discarded scrap metal to sell, in Dhaka District.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2883/Noorani 11 June 2012

Cambodia, 2017: Mothers listen to health volunteer Khamvan Hem (right) explain the importance of immunization in protecting their children’s health, in Lou village, an urban poor community along the Tonle Sap River.

Health workers like Khamvan play an essential role in maintaining public trust in immunization, addressing parents’ concerns and encouraging them to accept lifesaving vaccinations for their children.©UNICEF/UN060021/Llaurado 23 April 2018

Nigeria, 2009: Rukayyat, 11, is sick with a suspected case of malaria in the town of Bauchi. Malaria causes 30 per cent of childhood deaths and 11 per cent of maternal deaths in the country. The strategy to combat the disease includes: the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets; research on new treatments; and community health training.

UNICEF is part of the ‘Roll Back Malaria’ initiative, aimed at halving the global malaria burden by 2010.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0451/Gangale 22 June 2009

Bolivia, 2008: Wilma, 16, stands in her flooded school months after heavy rains began sweeping through the country in late 2007, affecting 97,000 families. Ongoing flooding has severely damaged or destroyed homes, health centres, roads and essential infrastructure.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0382/Abramson 27 October 2008

Zambia, 2010: Two-year-old Bright smiles at his aunt and primary caretaker Leontina in Mulebambushi Village. Bright acquired HIV in utero, and his mother, Yvonne, died of an AIDS-related illness last year.

Services to prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV are now available in their district, and Bright is receiving life-saving antiretroviral medicines.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2928/Nesbitt 28 March 2011

Dominican Republic, 2011: Many Haitians, including children, cross into the Dominican Republic in an attempt to escape poverty, but the risks are also great. An estimated 2,000 Haitian children are trafficked across the border annually.

For those who cross willingly, opportunities for any sort of work are few. UNICEF supports efforts to prevent child trafficking and to educate communities about its risks to their children. A Haitian boy looks for shoe-shine customers in Dajabón.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2260/Dormino 9 July 2012

Bangladesh, 2008: A child sex worker drapes her hand over the shoulder of a customer, outside a brothel in the city of Tangail. Reliable statistics are not available, but a 2002 World Health Organization study indicates that more than 150 million girls and 73 million boys are victims of sexual violence.

Sexual violence against children occurs in the home, in schools, in workplaces, in detention centres and elsewhere in the community.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0986/Noorani 10 November 2008

Jordan, 2014: During a visit to draw attention to the needs of Syrian refugees, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Orlando Bloom shares a laugh with 12-year-old Esmaeil. The boy, his parents and five siblings fled the Syrian conflict and now live in a modest dwelling in Irbid, Jordan, where they have exhausted their savings to cover expenses.

Esmaeli would like to continue his education, but the nearest school is full, and his family cannot afford the bus fare to send him to another.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0433/Diffidenti 14 April 2014

United States of America, 2016: An entire generation of the world’s children are in danger of losing their childhood. More than 50 million of them have been uprooted by war and poverty. Ahead of the first-ever UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants on 19 September, refugee and migrant children joined young people and other advocates at a candlelight vigil to urge world leaders to put children first in their response to the largest humanitarian displacement crisis since World War II.

©UNICEF/UN032505/Markisz 19 September 2016

Nepal, 2015: Search, rescue and relief operations continue in the aftermath of the massive 7.8-magnitude earthquake that hit Nepal on 25 April. Over 130,000 houses were destroyed and more than 85,800 damaged, leaving 24,000 people internally displaced.

A woman stands outside her home, in the city of Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley. Following the devastating natural disaster, she was able to salvage some belongings, which are behind her, and then awaited going to a shelter.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1072/Chen 4 May 2015

Italy, 2016: Migrant and refugee children and youth trying to reach Europe, particularly those traveling along the Central Mediterranean route, face appalling levels of abuse, exploitation, and practices which may amount to human trafficking.

“We risked our lives to come here [Italy],” says Mohammad (right). “At any checkpoint in the desert, you have to give money or they beat you,” says Alieu (left), recounting their journey. ”They were fighting, shooting everywhere [in Libya].

”©UNICEF/UN020035/Gilbertson VII Photo 11 September 2017

Sint Maarten, 2011: A boy plays behind a curtain in a foster home run by the I Can Foundation, a local NGO, in Lower Princess Quarter. Most children at the home are survivors of neglect or abuse. UNICEF was invited to assess the status of children in Sint Maarten, a Caribbean island nation that is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and to make recommendations for the better realization of their rights.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2007/LeMoyne 17 December 2012

Pakistan, 2009: A baby sleeps under a mosquito net in Jalozai Camp in Nowshera District in North-West Frontier Province. More than half of those displaced by the recent conflict are children, and hundreds of families continue arrive at encampment areas daily.

Strategies to combat malaria for those displaced include widespread use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and the distribution of affordable medicines.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0576/Ramoneda 12 October 2009

Malawi, 2017: Volunteer Yohane Ngirongo (right) weighs five-month-old Abigail Shumba (centre) to monitor her growth during a monthly outreach session at the Chanthuntha community clinic in rural Kasungu District, where under-five mortality rates have been cut in half since 2010.

Growth monitoring ensures that children suffering from malnutrition are treated as quickly as possible, one of a number of approaches Malawi has taken to reach the most vulnerable children.©UNICEF/UN066847/Hubbard 26 June 2017

Somalia, 2007: Children attend a UNICEF-assisted school in Mogadishu, the capital. In a country plagued by conflict and subject to frequent droughts, floods and mass displacement, fewer than 20 per cent of eligible children attend primary school.

A new surge in fighting broke out in late December 2008, and children have been forcibly recruited to fight on all sides on the conflict.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0055/Kamber 29 December 2008

Côte d’Ivoire, 2012: An estimated 35 per cent of Ivorian children aged 5 to 14 years are engaged in some form of labour, including in jobs that are harmful to their health and growth. A girl carries a bucket of water to cool hot charcoal at a production site for the material, in Bas-Sassandra Region.

Adults and out-of-school children work seven days a week at the site – where they are exposed to dangerous smoke and charcoal fumes.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0980/Asselin 16 September 2013

Jordan, 2017: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Priyanka Chopra (centre) visits Syrian girls in Grade 4 at their school in the Za’atari refugee camp, in Mafraq Governorate. An entire generation of Syrian children and youths are on the verge of being a lost generation due to conflict and displacement.

But they are not giving up on their dreams and aspirations. Worldwide, some 27 million children are out of school due to conflict. A child uprooted from home has the right to an education.©UNICEF/UN0120876/Rich 18 September 2017

Central African Republic, 2012: Women and their malnourished children rest in a nutrition treatment centre expanded with UNICEF support, in a Bangui hospital. The Central African Republic is one of the world’s poorest countries, with one of the highest rates of under-five mortality.

Resurgent conflict has worsened conditions, leaving 1.2 million people – 600,000 of them children – without access to basic services like water and health care.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1172/Sokol 12 August 2013

Georgia, 1997: Article 31 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes every child’s right “to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities.” In the last decade, Georgia has made substantial gains for its children – including reduced rates of child mortality and increased school enrolment and birth registration.

These achievements offer all children a better chance to grow, thrive and learn through play. A boy, in the town of Tskhinvali.©UNICEF/NYHQ1997-0780/LeMoyne 19 March 2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2018: [NAME CHANGED] Albertine, 16, currently lives at a UNICEF-supported reintegration centre for children formerly associated with armed groups, in the Kasaï region – where violent conflict has put children on the frontline.

The fighting has inflicted a heavy toll on children, who are being used by militias to fight and kill, and as human shields. “We learn here to be polite, to respect each other and also how to protect and raise our future children,” Agnes says.

©UNICEF/UN0185847/Tremeau 14 May 2018

China, 2010: Students survey the damage near their collapsed dormitory at the Yushu School for Orphans in Yushu County, Qinghai Province. They are survivors of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that struck Yushu on 14 April, killing over 2,000 people.

More than 12,000 people were injured, and an estimated 100,000 have been left homeless and vulnerable to below-freezing temperatures. UNICEF is responding to the crisis by supplying tents, blankets, warm clothing, school kits, medical supplies and generators.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0681/Jerry 26 April 2010

Bangladesh, 2017: Students look at an inflatable globe from a School-in-a-Box kit, in a new child-friendly space in the Uchiprang camp in Cox’s Bazar district. They are among 15,000 children receiving educational and other support at 182 UNICEF learning centres in Rohingya refugee camps and makeshift settlements in the district.

Over half of the Rohingya who fled Myanmar are children.© UNICEF/UN0141031/LeMoyne 30 October 2017

Pakistan, 2013: A polio team, accompanied by an armed escort, vaccinates children in a nomad community during a national polio immunization campaign. The world is closer than ever to eradicating polio.

Just three endemic countries (including Pakistan) remain. Acceptance of the polio vaccine in these countries has reached record highs through intense UNICEF-led social mobilization. World Polio Day, held annually on 24 October, focuses this year on the final push to end the crippling disease.

©UNICEF/PAKA2012-00309/Zaidi 20 October 2014

Sudan, 2007: Girls play at a UNICEF-supported school in Juba in Southern Sudan. Some 1.3 million children are now attending school in Southern Sudan (up from 343,000 in 2002), thanks to the 2005 peace agreement and UNICEF’s support of the government’s ‘Go to School’ initiative.

However, increased violence in 2009 between varied political and ethnic groups has already affected education for many thousands of children and is now threatening the peace agreement.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0877/Cranston 11 January 2010

Namibia, 2008: Girls stand outside a community home for children in the town of Gobabis. Their caregiver, Nora, looks after 13 orphaned or otherwise vulnerable children with the help of a neighbour, grants from the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare and local in-kind donations.

Namibian children continue to face poverty, violence and food insecurity greatly exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has reversed social progress on many fronts.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0842/Isaac 29 June 2009

United Nations Headquarters, 2017: (Left) actor, activist and UNICEF child advocate Jaden Michael, 14, looks at the programme for World Children’s Day, coming up on 20 November. Children are ‘taking over’ the UN on the Day – which also marks the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child – to speak up for the world’s most disadvantaged and vulnerable children.

“[O]ur message is clear: We need to speak up for ourselves, and when we do, the world needs to listen,” Jaden said.©UNICEF/UN0146042/Markisz 20 November 2017

Central African Republic, 2012: Omar [NAME CHANGED], 10, is among 45 children staying at a UNICEF-assisted transit centre for children formerly associated with armed groups, in the northern town of N’dele.

The centre helps the children cope with the effects of the abuse, exploitation and violence they have experienced as a result of proliferating conflicts in the country. Omar was forced to perform errands for soldiers and, because of his young age, was used as a spy in communities.

©UNICEF/UNI127518/Sokol 27 November 2017

People’s Democratic Republic of Lao, 2004: In Savannakhet Province, a woman covers her daughter’s face to protect her identity. At age 16, the girl was trafficked to Bangkok, Thailand, where she spent seven years as a domestic servant for a wealthy business man who beat and tortured her.

On 12 February 2009, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime launched ‘A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons’, the first full assessment of the scope of human trafficking around the world.©UNICEF/NYHQ2004-0734/Holmes 9 February 2009

Iraq, 2016: Zayneb, 10, from Mosul, at the opening of a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space to provide safe learning and play, in a camp for displaced Iraqis in Karbala. On 23 May, the first-ever World Humanitarian Summit, a global call to action by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, begins in Turkey.

UNICEF with partners will launch Education Cannot Wait, a new fund to reach more than 13.6 million children and youths in crisis situations globally with quality learning, at the Summit.©UNICEF/UN017049/Khuzaie 23 May 2016

Central African Republic, 2008: An elderly woman and a boy from the Peul ethnic group sit in the town of Paoua. They are among an estimated 1 million people affected by the country’s ongoing conflict.

Some 197,000 people are internally displaced and an additional 98,000 refugees are sheltering in neighbouring countries. Insecurity continues to hamper humanitarian aid in the country, which has some of the worst child survival indicators in Africa.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0583/Holtz 23 February 2009

Pakistan, 2011: A health worker marks the finger of a girl to indicate that she has been vaccinated against polio, in Sindh Province. With infections reduced by 99 per cent since 1988, fewer children now suffer from the vaccine-preventable disease.

Still, Pakistan is one of three countries where the virus remains endemic. Held annually on 24 October, World Polio Day focuses attention on the need for continued action to eradicate the disease.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2600/Zaidi 21 October 2013

Yemen, 2018: A child in school in Aden City. An entire generation of Yemeni children are facing a bleak future because of limited or no access to education due to three years of escalating conflict. Nearly 2 million children are now out of school; and children still in school are not getting a quality education.

If children in the country are to resume their schooling and receive the education they urgently need and deserve, peace and recovery are absolutely essential. ©UNICEF/UN0188081/Fuad 2 April 2018

South Sudan, 2018: (Left) Gatliah, 17, and his sister (centre) Nyagoanar, 7, sit aboard a helicopter with newly appointed UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta H. Fore, whose tenure began on 1 January 2018, as they make their way to the Bentiu Protection of Civilians site to be reunited with their mother and sister after four years apart.

UNICEF helped reunite more than 5,000 separated and unaccompanied children with their immediate families in 2017.©UNICEF/UN0156709/Prinsloo 29 January 2018

Liberia, 2012: UNICEF supports social mobilization efforts worldwide – encouraging and enabling children, women and men to become active participants in improving their own communities. These efforts remain critical to overcoming lingering challenges and effecting truly sustainable change.

A young woman passes a mural promoting healthy sanitation and hygiene practices, outside the UNICEF-supported Redemption Public Hospital in Monrovia.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0520/Asselin 4 March 2013

Celebrating 25 years of the Convention on the Rights of the Child with 25 landmarks for children. See more [email protected] >

Syrian Arab Republic, 2018: Residents watch a United Nations-led humanitarian aid convoy arrive in Eastern Ghouta. UNICEF continues to support Syrian children in need, including nearly 2 million living in besieged and hard-to-reach areas, deprived of their basic rights.

The conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, which began in March 2011, continues to drive the largest refugee crisis in the world, with 5.4 million Syrian refugees registered in the region. Nearly half are children.

©UNICEF/UN0162760/Khabieh 12 March 2018

India, 2017: Newly appointed UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Lilly Singh with girls in Madhya Pradesh State. Ms. Singh, known globally as Superwoman, will work with UNICEF to engage and empower children and young people to speak out about the challenges they face.

“The children I have met here … are living proof of what a child can achieve, if given a chance,” she said.” Her role with UNICEF is complemented by her Girl Love initiative to end girl-on-girl hate and encourage positivity.

©UNICEF/UN071611/Brown 17 July 2017

Philippines, 2014: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador David Beckham plays with children at a UNICEF-supported tented school, during a visit to areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan. “[S]eeing how children are being given a sense of normality amidst the rubble of their communities has been amazing,” said Mr.

Beckham. “I want to show people around the world how their generous donations have had an enormous impact on children and their families and how thankful people here are for their kindness.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0133/Pettersson 17 February 2014

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2008: The Mungote camp houses 16,000 of an estimated 250,000 people forced to flee violence in North Kivu Province. Resurgent clashes in late October between government and rebel forces continue to hamper critical humanitarian aid efforts.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0991/Kavanagh 3 November 2008

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017: Children carry containers of water drawn at a UNICEF-built water point in Tshinyama Village in Kasai Orientale province. More than 1 million people have been forced from their homes by violent conflict in the Greater Kasai region, and at least 850,000 children have been displaced in the region.

Unless widespread violence in the volatile region comes to an end, the future of an entire generation of children is at risk in the escalating crisis.©UNICEF/UN073304/Dubourthoumieu 7 August 2017

Syrian Arab Republic, 2018: (At blackboard) Hanaa, 8, in east Aleppo city, missed a year of school after a bomb explosion cost her the use of her legs. Against all odds, 4.9 million Syrian children continue to have access to education despite more than seven long years of war, violence and displacement.

An estimated 2.8 million children have missed out on their education due to the Syrian conflict. “[M]y big dream is for peace to return to my country,” Hanaa says.©UNICEF/UN0177792/Al-Issa 30 April 2018

Niger, 2007: Newborn twins are examined at a UNICEF-supported clinic in Maradi Region. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 6 recognizes that “every child has the inherent right to life… survival and development…”©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2671/Pirozzi 4 October 2010

Italy, 2017: [NAME CHANGED] Mary, 18, now in a safe house in Sicily, left Nigeria at age 17 to find work and a better life, but was tricked by traffickers into prostitution. “They treated us so bad. Everything Ben [the smuggler who took her] said – that we would be treated well, and that we would be safe, it was all wrong.

It was a lie,” Mary said. UNICEF is calling on governments to adopt a global protection system to keep refugee and migrant children safe from exploitation, abuse and death.©UNICEF/UN061191/Gilbertson VII Photo 15 May 2017

Nigeria, 2016: Six-month-old Falmata in Borno State – being screened in the UNICEF-supported Dalori camp for internally displaced people – is malnourished. As humanitarian aid becomes accessible in more areas in the conflict-affected north-eastern region, the extent of the nutrition crisis affecting children is becoming even more apparent.

Of the 244,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition in Borno State this year, almost 1 in 5 will die if not reached with treatment.©UNICEF/UN025802/Esiebo 1 August 2016

Iran, 2011: A girl passes a wall that reads: “God loves children who say their ‘namaz’ [prayers].” She is on her way to her kindergarten, in the village of Bahl, Hormozgan Province. Article 14 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees every child’s right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

UNICEF works worldwide to realize the fulfilment of all children’s rights.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2515/Arfa 21 January 2013

Bangladesh, 2013: (Centre) Laboni, 10, lives in a Dhaka slum and attends a nearby school run by a UNICEF partner. Economic and gender disparities in Bangladesh hamper the fulfilment of child rights, including in education.

Children from the poorest families are significantly less likely than their richest peers to be registered at birth, limiting their access to social services like school. For girls, the risk of early marriage presents additional threats to their educational achievement.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0376/Noorani 30 September 2013

Mali, 2009: A boy shows off his T-shirt, which bears the logo of the Italian football team, in a remote area of Mopti Region. Through Sport for Development and other programmes, UNICEF works with partners to promote healthy behaviours for children everywhere.

For the first time ever, the FIFA World Cup, which will take place from 11 June through 11 July, is being hosted in an African nation: South Africa.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1918/Pirozzi 14 June 2010

Mali, 2013: A girl in the conflict-affected city of Gao. Security remains precarious in northern Mali amid lingering tension between government and rebel forces. More than 300,700 people have been displaced, and over 173,000 have sought refuge abroad.

Landmines from the fighting as well as protracted drought-related food shortages countrywide further compound threats to children. UNICEF requires US$81.9 million for humanitarian responses throughout 2013.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0163/Bindra 27 May 2013

Syrian Arab Republic, 2017: “I love playing football. When I play football, I don’t feel like I’ve lost anything at all,” says Saja, 13, who lost her leg more than two years ago during a bomb attack in eastern Aleppo – ending her dream of being a gymnast.

Yet, after six years of war, many children are determined to pursue their hopes and aspirations. Saja now practices aerial flips every day in her tiny apartment and dreams of one day participating in the Special Olympics.

©UNICEF/UN055883/Al-Issa 13 March 2017

Lebanon, 2006: A boy surveys his neighbourhood in Beirut following the conflict with Israel, which killed over 1,000 people and displaced some 907,000. Globally, an estimated one billion children live in countries or territories affected by armed conflict.

On 16 June 2009, the ‘Machel Study 10-Year Strategic Review: Children and Conflict in a Changing World’ was launched, an update of the 1996 ‘United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children’.

Both reports underscore the need to protect children affected by war.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-1679/Brooks 15 June 2009

Liberia 2015: Ophelia Ghartay and her husband, community pastor John Ghartay, helped shelter and support a family of six orphans who survived Ebola. Ophelia says her husband tried three times to rent a home for the children, but was refused each time.

“We cannot blame people for being afraid. Everyone was afraid. Even I was afraid,” Pastor Ghartay continues, “their mother died, their father died, their brother died. We believe these six survived because God has a plan for them.

”©UNICEF/UNI200653/Grile 4 January 2016

India, 2001: On 13 January 2012, India completes one year without a single new case of polio. If final data affirms this historic gain – achieved by millions of Indians committed to eradicating the disease – India will be removed from the list of remaining endemic countries.

Vigilant surveillance and ongoing mass vaccinations of all under-5 children must continue to sustain this status. A health worker goes ‘door-to-door’ to immunize children against polio in Dadupar Village.

©Sebastiao_Salgado/Amazonas_Images 16 January 2012

Aruba, 2011: Children play outside a school in Noord, a town on the Caribbean island of Aruba. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba has strong social programmes for children, including in education; almost all eligible children attend primary school.

But, language barriers in a system still dominated by Dutch, and high secondary school dropout rates, are among the challenges facing the country’s leaders and its children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1843/LeMoyne 30 January 2012

Sierra Leone, 2013: Issata Sow and her 4-month-old daughter lie beneath a mosquito net, a powerful defence against malaria, in Freetown. Fifteen years ago, when world leaders agreed on the Millennium Development Goals, they pledged to halt and to begin to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015.

The world has met that goal; the rate of new infections declined by some 37 per cent, and malaria deaths fell by 60 per cent – gains that have saved 6.2 million lives over the past 15 years.©UNICEF/SLRA2013-0288/Asselin 21 September 2015

Pakistan, 2010: A woman watches over her children in a camp for people displaced by floods, in Charsadda District. Flooding, the worst in Pakistan’s history, affected 20 million people, half of them children.

Six months after the crisis began, people are still struggling to recover. Forty per cent of households lost entire food stocks, and over 2 million hectares of crops were destroyed, pushing child malnutrition rates in several districts above emergency levels.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2735/Ramoneda 7 February 2011

Guatemala, 2007: A boy sells bags of cotton candy in the central plaza of Nebaj, in El Quiché Department. Half of the Guatemala’s 3.7 million children live in poverty. Nearly one quarter of children aged three to five months are malnourished.

Only 60 per cent of students who start first grade complete sixth grade, and an estimated 23 per cent of children 7-16 years old must work to support themselves or their families.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2752/Versiani 28 September 2009

Uganda, 2007: In Kotido District, Licia Lomulen, 12, and Veronica Angura, 15, (left-right in pink) race to school with younger children, making a game of their three-kilometre journey. The girls are members of a UNICEF-supported African grassroots initiative to empower girls through education and to emphasize the importance of sending every child to school.

It includes tracking girls who do not attend and finding solutions to help them go to, and stay in, school.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2357/LeMoyne 6 February 2012

Mexico, 2016: [NAME CHANGED] 16-year-old Maria (right) and her younger siblings, Hondurans trying to reunite with their family in the United States of America, travel through the municipality of Tultitlán in the State of Mexico.

Thousands of children are fleeing Central America for the United States every month, to escape brutal gangs and stifling poverty. Many of them are unaccompanied. All of them risk being kidnapped, trafficked, raped or killed during the dangerous journey.

©UNICEF/UNI176266/Ojeda 22 August 2016

Pakistan, 2012: In December 2012, targeted attacks killed nine polio vaccination workers. Going door-to-door to ensure every child is reached, vaccinators – who are often women and community volunteers – face myriad risks.

Their work and safety remain critical to global polio eradication, including in Pakistan, one of only three countries where the disease is still endemic. Vaccinators traverse floodwaters in Sindh Province to reach children during a September immunization campaign.

[©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1303/Zaidi 7 January 2013

Colombia, 2004: Leidy, 13, a former child soldier, lives at a rehabilitation centre that offers education, counselling and other services to help former child combatants reintegrate into family and civilian life.

Colombia has one of the highest income gaps in the region, a four-decade-old civil conflict, a rampant drug trade and one of the highest violence indices in the world. Recruiting children into armed groups is a crime, but its practice, in Colombia and elsewhere, continues.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2004-0817/DeCesare 20 April 2009

Bolivia, 2011: Children gather on a truck bed near the village of San Juan del Carmen. All children now attend school, but many also work part-time with their parents, who are labourers in the dangerous sugar cane industry.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child expresses in international law the rights due every child. Article 32 recognizes “the right of the child to be protected from . . . performing any work that is likely to be hazardous.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1474/Friedman-Rudovsky 5 December 2011

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2008: Children displaced by conflict play at a UNICEF-assisted child-friendly space near the city of Goma. The spaces are safe gathering places for children, staffed by trained adults who provide basic care and psychosocial services.

With little to play with, children have made balloons from condoms.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1227/Holt 16 February 2009

State of Palestine, 2015: (Left-right) For Fahed, 18, and Fares, 15, practising parkour helps them cope with life in Gaza, where recovery is still ongoing after 51 days of conflict in July and August 2014.

With its roots in military obstacle course training, parkour requires great skill as walls, buildings and other structures are used while performing quick manoeuvres. “I don’t know about the future, but we live under siege, and this is the only thing that makes us feel free,” says Fares.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1830/d’Aki 10 August 2015

South Sudan, 2011: A newborn sleeps in Wau Hospital in Western Bahr al Ghazal State, formerly part of the Sudan. ‘The State of the World’s Children 2014 in Numbers’ report focuses on the importance of data to identify the needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups; support advocacy and action; and gauge progress.

The report also shows disparities in access to services and protection and urges greater effort and the use of innovation to advance children’s rights.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0453/de Viguerie 3 February 2014

Ethiopia, 2009: Girls walk through a garbage-strewn field in Amibara District. In Ethiopia, girls’ lives are being improved by development programmes that engage local communities. These programmes empower communities to discuss and repudiate harmful traditional practices, including female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), a practice that remains widespread throughout the country.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2299/Holt 16 August 2010

Pakistan, 2010: Flood-displaced children perform exercises at a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space in Charsadda Station Camp, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. By the end of January 2011, the people of Pakistan – including an estimated 170,000 people still displaced – continued to struggle with the effects of the worst flooding in their country’s recorded history.

The flooding began in mid-July 2010 and, at its height, affected 20 million people, half of them children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2963/Noorani 17 August 2015

Libya, 2012: Boys play football in an area of Sirte that was once contaminated with unexploded ordinance. Much of the city, the final stronghold of former government forces, was destroyed during Libya’s civil war.

The 10-month conflict displaced more than 200,000 Libyans and forced over 660,000 to seek refuge abroad before ending in October 2011. Recovery efforts are ongoing.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0161/Diffidenti 24 December 2012

Syrian Arab Republic, 2016: Ahmed, 10, trying to keep warm, has been displaced from east Aleppo with his four siblings. Their parents were killed in the country’s continuing conflict and – with no relatives to care for them – they are living at a shelter housing 6,000 displaced people, outside besieged Aleppo City.

The Syrian crisis continues to rob children of vital services they need to survive. Many children are at risk of pneumonia and other deadly diseases as temperatures drop.©UNICEF/UN044444/Al-Issa 19 December 2016

Iraq, 2014: Displaced children play with puppets from a recreation kit, at a UNICEF child-friendly tent in Dohuk Governorate. This month, UNICEF has sent 1,000 metric tons – enough to fill 19 cargo jumbo jets – of life-saving supplies to children caught in the world’s biggest crises.

With shipments going to the Central African Republic, Iraq, Liberia, the State of Palestine, South Sudan and the Syrian Arab Republic, the supply operation is the biggest in a single month in UNICEF’s history.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1177crop/Khuzaie 25 August 2014

Senegal, 2008: Children queue to wash their hands with soap before a meal at their school in Casamance Region. Countries in West and Central Africa have the lowest improved sanitation coverage in the world and the highest under-five mortality rates.

Poor facilities, inadequate hygiene and unsafe water all contribute to needless child deaths. Yet the simple habit of washing hands with soap could save the lives of some 500,000 children in the region every year.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1117/Nesbitt 1 June 2009

Sri Lanka, 2008: In Ampara District, girls visit the site of their former school, which was destroyed during the December 2004 tsunami. Their new school, built with UNICEF assistance, opened in September 2008.

Four years later, Sri Lankans are still recovering from the tsunami, and continue to endure a 25-year-old civil conflict. Fighting has intensified since late January 2009, and some 250,000 civilians, mostly children and women, are at risk.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1352/Pietrasik 2 February 2009

Côte d’Ivoire, 2010: A woman carries water outside the city of Bouaké. Since conflict erupted after the 28 November 2011 presidential election, hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced. UNICEF is providing medicines, safe drinking water, nutritional support, education supplies and other critical aid in displacement camps and elsewhere throughout the country.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1781/Guoegnon 25 April 2011

Haiti, 2011: 12 January 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the earthquake that killed some 220,000 Haitians, displaced more than 1.6 million and destroyed vital infrastructure. Progress since the quake has been substantial, including for children.

But, Haiti remains a fragile and impoverished state that continues to need international assistance. A girl stands outside a school in the mountainside village of Pyechal.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2056/Dormino 9 January 2012

Mali, 2012: Continuing conflict in northern Mali has displaced nearly 229,000 people and forced over 152,000 to seek refuge in neighbouring countries. This has deepened challenges for children already threatened by ongoing nutrition insecurity in Africa’s Sahel region.

UNICEF requires US$84.7 million to help meet the needs of affected Malians through 2013. Wana Haidera, 6, displaced by fighting, now lives with extended family in Ségou Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1804/Bindra 11 February 2013

Iraq 2016: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violent practice that violates girls’ and women’s fundamental human rights. The harmful traditional practice scars girls for life. Of the 200 million girls who have been subjected to FGM, 44 million of them are age 14 or younger.

Social worker Kurdistan Resul (standing at right) from UNICEF NGO partner WADI, raises awareness among men in Murtka Village, Kurdistan Region, about the consequences of FGM.©UNICEF/UN09340/Mackenzie 8 February 2016

South Sudan, 2014: Four million people are in need of urgent food assistance in the country’s worsening humanitarian crisis; with about 50,000 children under age 5 at risk of dying this year from severe acute malnutrition.

Some 1.5 million people, including more than 550,000 children, have been displaced by violence and conflict – with little access to humanitarian assistance. A displaced older boy feeds a younger one, at a UNICEF-supported Protection of Civilians site in the city of Wau.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0887/Peru 14 July 2014

Morocco, 2005: Zahra Ennaji, 16, carries water towards her family’s nomadic compound in the Sahara Desert. In addition to performing household chores, Zahra walks five kilometres each way to attend primary school.

Primary education completion rate remains low, and girls account for the majority of drop-outs. UNICEF is working with the government and local partners to support schools in rural areas, and is providing evening courses for children who work during the day.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-2241/Pirozzi 19 October 2009

Pakistan, 2013: Arshad Ali, 12, in Grade 4, attends 1 of 30 UNICEF-supported schools in the Jalozai camp for internally displaced persons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. In 2016, an estimated 75 million children in dire need of education support live in 35 countries affected by crises.

A new European Union-UNICEF campaign, #EmergencyLessons, aims to raise awareness, understanding and support among Europeans about the importance of education for children affected by emergencies.©UNICEF/UN018825/Zaidi 16 May 2016

India, 2009: The International Day of the Girl Child – now celebrated annually on 11 October – promotes girls’ empowerment and draws attention to the challenges they face. The 2012 inaugural Day focuses on child marriage, a fundamental rights violation that affects every facet of a girl’s life.

(Second from right) Munni, 18, in Rajasthan State, was arranged to be married at 17 but persuaded her father to postpone her wedding until she was of legal age. Her mother is a women’s advocate.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2215/Khemka 8 October 2012

United Republic of Tanzania, 2010: Zena stands among bags of recyclables near the shack where she lives in the Mtoni landfill, in Dar es Salaam. She brings her son, Luther, with her while she works. “There’s no one to look after him at home, and I need to work,” she said.

“It’s not good work, but it’s work.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1866/Noorani 3 October 2011

UNICEF photography advocates for the world’s most vulnerable children, offering visual evidence in support of children’s rights. UNICEF’s photography essay, ‘2011 in photographs’, narrates the year’s story of these rights – violated by poverty, conflict and climate change but also advanced through political openings and improved services.

Children in the Central African Republic are reflected, amid clouds, in a pool of water.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0817/Grarup 26 December 2011

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2009: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassadors Mahmoud Kabil and Mia Farrow stand in front of a destroyed building in the town of Jabalya. The building was bombed during an Israeli military incursion into the Gaza Strip.

Kabil and Farrow visited the area to draw attention to the impact of the conflict on children. UNICEF works with government authorities, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, and NGOs to support essential services for children.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1860/Pirozzi 26 October 2009

Nepal, 2012: Poverty reductions in Nepal have accompanied significant gains in child nutrition. But the poorest children, who have the least access to vital services, remain most vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies.

Jamuna Saud, her family’s sole provider since the death of her husband, works all day in the fields to feed and support her children in Biraltoli Village. A joint UNICEF/EU programme is providing nutrition screenings for children in the impoverished village.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1981/Noorani 13 May 2013

Sudan, 2011: A camp for people displaced by recent violence, in the town of Agok in Southern Sudan. The situation for children and women in the region remains dire: One of every seven children dies before age five, one in six women dies from pregnancy-related causes, and millions of people continue to be affected by insecurity.

UNICEF supports efforts to provide basic services and education for children throughout the region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0457/deViguerie 16 May 2011

Nepal, 2009: Nearly half of Nepal’s under-five children are malnourished. Chronic drought has slowed agricultural production, while the global economic downturn has forced many already impoverished families to buy cheaper, less nutritious food – further exacerbating the crisis.

A woman carries her child in Mugu District, where more than a quarter of the youngest children are malnourished.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0869/Sokol 20 February 2012

Curaçao, 2012: UNICEF was invited to assess the situation of children in Curaçao, a Caribbean country that is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The study affirmed Curaçao’s relatively high standard of living, including basic social services for children.

It also recommended courses of action for government and community leaders to bridge remaining programme gaps and achieve child rights in all areas of daily life. Girls in a low-income area of Willemstad, the capital.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1903/LeMoyne 18 February 2013

India, 2009: Women carry bundles of fodder for cattle as night falls in Saharsa District. People are still recovering from the massive flooding of 2008, and now must cope with job losses and increased food and fuel costs caused by the global economic downturn.

Many already live at the edge of subsistence. UNICEF is supporting therapeutic feeding centres and nutritional monitoring programmes.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0916/Sokol 31 August 2009

Mongolia, 2012: L. Mijiddorj cares for his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at a local clinic. Ms. Enkhtuya is a ‘bagh feldsher’, a health worker for nomadic herder communities, in Khövsgöl Province.

Ensuring that adequate health care reaches the communities’ children – who represent nearly 24 per cent of Mongolia’s child population – often proves challenging due to the mobile lifestyle and remote locales of nomadic families.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1753/Sokol 9 September 2013

Pakistan, 2009: The world has made noticeable progress in reducing under-5 child deaths; but progress for newborns has lagged behind. Most newborn deaths are from preventable causes and can be reduced with sufficient resources and attention to quality care.

Effective, affordable solutions exist that, if made more widely available, can help save at least two-thirds of newborn lives. Displaced newborn twins and their older brother sleep in Mardan Medical Complex, North West Frontier Province.

©UNICEF/PAKA2009-4176/Ramoneda 30 June 2014

Syrian Arab Republic, 2017: Horriya, 12, carrying a jerrycan of water in Ain Issa camp is among 107,000 people displaced by unrelenting violence in Raqqa Governorate. An estimated 6.4 million children are in need of safe water in the country, where continuing conflict has damaged or destroyed water infrastructure and has contaminated water sources.

As World Water Week gets under way, more than 180 million people in countries ravaged by conflict or unrest lack basic drinking water.©UNICEF/UN067453/Souleiman 28 August 2017

Senegal, 2007: Children collect water from a tap at Nyassia Primary School in Ziguinchor Region. UNICEF works with the Government and other partners to provide essential services to children, who comprise half of the country’s population.

Initiatives include the installation of safe water and sanitation facilities in schools, teacher training, hygiene promotion, child protection programmes, and health and nutrition programmes.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1036/Asselin 28 February 2011

Haiti, 2010: Sisters are treated for cholera at Dessalines Hospital in Artibonite Department. Cholera is spreading through the northern departments of Haiti in the worst medical crisis since the 12 January earthquake.

Some 4,764 people have been hospitalized and 337 killed. Officials are concerned the outbreak may spread to Port-au-Prince, where 1.3 million quake survivors live in tent camps and are vulnerable to disease.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2128/Dormino 1 November 2010

Pakistan, 2010: A boy flies a kite in a camp for people displaced by flooding that began in late July 2010, affecting 18 million people, half of them children. UNICEF’s response was the largest in agency history; 5 million people received safe water each day, and 11 million children were vaccinated against polio.

But one year later, recovery is threatened by a new monsoon season and dwindling humanitarian funding. US$50 million is needed to meet the needs of survivors.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2733/Ramoneda 1 August 2011

South Sudan, 2011: One-month-old Monyaguek Mayen is vaccinated against polio, in Unity State. The lives of 1.5 million children globally could be saved each year if they had access to vaccines. Though more children than ever before are being protected with vaccination, which prevents up to 3 million child deaths each year, the poorest and most marginalized children are consistently missing out on life-saving immunizations despite being those who need them the most.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2460/Sokol 27 April 2015

Nigeria, 2016: A boy inhales dangerous fumes from rubber tyres and other waste materials burning at a slaughterhouse in Bayelsa State. Air pollution is linked directly to diseases that kill, and children are breathing in ultrafine, airborne pollutants – primarily from smoke and fumes – that endanger their health.

Nearly one in seven of the world’s children lives in areas with toxic levels of outdoor air pollution. In Africa, 520 million children are breathing unsafe air.©UNICEF/UN037170/Bindra 31 October 2016

United Republic of Tanzania, 2014: A woman cradles her infant at Mwembeladu Maternity Home in Zanzibar. She is using ‘kangaroo care’, where mothers with no access to incubators hold their preterm babies constantly against their skin to keep them warm.

Millions of maternal and newborn deaths can be prevented each year with proven interventions such as ‘kangaroo mother care’. In June 2014, UNICEF and WHO roll out the Every Newborn Action Plan to improve maternal and child health.

©UNICEF/UNI161869A/Holt 27 May 2014

Yemen, 2017: A boy plays with a tyre near buildings damaged by fighting, in Sa’ada’s old city. Since the start of the year, the humanitarian situation has deteriorated substantially in the country, which remains engulfed in conflict.

Tens of millions of children and other civilians in conflicts today lack protection from attacks and need vital humanitarian assistance. UNICEF works for every child in emergencies, no matter which party to a conflict controls the area where a child lives.

©UNICEF/UN073958/Clarke for UNOCHA 14 August 2017

Vietnam, 2015: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Katy Perry visits a daycare centre providing children with disabilities the support they need to thrive alongside their peers. “All the children I met have incredible dreams.

We have to help them fight for those dreams. Investing in the most disadvantaged to give them a fair chance in life is not only the right thing to do, it is the best way to break the cycle of poverty and drastically improve children’s health, education and well-being.

”©UNICEF/UN020123/Quan 1 June 2016

Fiji, 2016: Seven-year-old Makelesi’s school, in Ra Province, is in ruins in the wake of Cyclone Winston. At least 240 schools have been damaged or destroyed in the disaster. Although over 1,100 have managed to reopen, hundreds still face delays due to damage and many others are serving as shelter for people who have been displaced.

UNICEF is providing temporary classrooms – helping children to quickly return to school and to regain a sense of normality as the school year begins.©UNICEF/UN011700/Sokhin 7 March 2016

Romania, 2007: Children cast shadows while playing in Bucharest. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 31 of the Convention recognizes the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2876/Pirozzi 14 December 2009

Nicaragua, 2012: Indigenous children in Bluefields Lagoon. Gains in Nicaragua have benefitted the often marginalized indigenous and Afro-descendent communities disproportionately. Nearly 60 per cent live in extreme poverty, and nearly a quarter reside in inadequate housing.

Their access to essential services is also severely limited, and most never complete a basic education. UNICEF support includes programmes to foster greater community participation among indigenous children.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1484/Dormino 16 December 2013

Nepal, 2009: Children watch the approach of a storm on the roof of their home in the remote Mugu District. Food security remains elusive in the western district, where poverty is endemic and crop yields are low.

As monsoon rains commence in June 2010, beleaguered farmers are also concerned about the effects of flooding and landslides on food production. In the past four years, chronic hunger has worsened around the world, with over two thirds of sufferers, some 642 million people, living in Asia.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0870/Sokol 21 June 2010

Italy, 2014: Adolescents lie on a sidewalk, using their bodies and an assortment of objects to spell the word ‘costruire’, which means ‘to build’ in Italian. It is a key word that came out of a discussion they had on the economic crisis and its effect on Italy, during a group activity at La Grande Bellezia, a new youth centre in the city of Turin, Piedmont Region.

Disillusioned with the current circumstances in Italy, and in Europe at large, the adolescents chose the word as a reflection of the need to build a new generation with better values.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1957/Pirozzi 3 November 2014

Haiti, 2016: Two children play in the devastated town of Jérémie, in hard-hit Grand-Anse Department, where residents are trying to pick up their lives after Hurricane Matthew. The storm – the largest humanitarian event in the country since the massive Category 4 earthquake in 2010 – destroyed the town’s entire coastline and damaged and decimated hundreds of homes.

An estimated 500,000 children live in areas most affected by Hurricane Matthew.©UNICEF/UN035026/Gonzalez 10 October 2016

Lebanon, 2016: Jomaa, 14, a Syrian refugee living in the Bekaa Valley, shows the dirt embedded under his fingernails from toiling 12 hours a day harvesting crops. Jomaa has had to forgo his education in order to support his family.

“I get paid US$2 for a full day’s work, from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.,” he said. “… I’ve forgotten how to read and write.” Thousands of Syrian children in Lebanon – some as young as 6 years old – are working instead of going to school.

©UNICEF/UN043222/Romenzi 23 January 2017

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2015: Children and their families are among a huge influx of refugees and migrants in crisis who have entered the country with the goal of transiting to other countries in the European Union.

Since July 2015, their numbers have increased to approximately 2,000–3000 people per day. A distressed child rests on a man’s shoulder in the town of Gevgelija – on the border with Greece – where women and children account for nearly one third of arrivals.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2065/Georgiev 9 September 2015

India, 2009: A boy with severe acute malnutrition sits in his mother’s lap, in Bihar State. India is home to a quarter of the world’s hungry people, a situation made more acute by the global economic crisis.

Malnutrition now afflicts 43 per cent of children under five, and is especially prevalent in rural areas and among the urban poor. Targeted efforts to improve health are beginning to redress these inequities.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0902/Sokol 13 December 2010

Chad, 2010: Men ride through a dust storm in the western city of Mao, in Kanem Region. Changing weather patterns in the region have led to droughts and chronic food shortages, leaving millions in need of food aid.

Desertification has consumed much of the region’s arable land, killing crops and cattle, and malnutrition rates are on the rise. UNICEF supports therapeutic feeding centres and nutrition monitoring programmes throughout western Chad.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0423/Holt 22 March 2010

Haiti, 2010: A boy arrested for stealing stands in a detention centre in Port-au-Prince. The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that “the arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate time.

” Globally, over 1 million children are deprived of liberty by law enforcement. Most of them have not committed serious offenses, and some have been jailed for their race, nationality or beliefs.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2689/LeMoyne 18 April 2011

Mongolia, 2010: A girl walks home after school in Altai District, Khovd Province. In early February, the Government declared a state of disaster in over half the country’s provinces due to unusually heavy snow, strong winds and extreme cold, conditions known locally as a ‘dzud’.

The dzud has killed over 2.7 million livestock and impeded access to food, fuel, sanitation and basic medical care. UNICEF is providing food, fuel, blankets and medical supplies, and is working with other UN agencies to support Government relief efforts.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0432/Cullen 12 April 2010

Liberia, 2015: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Orlando Bloom chats with a girl whose school, in Grand Cape Mount County, was closed between last year’s summer break and March 2015 as a result of the Ebola outbreak.

Mr. Bloom met the girl during his visit last week to Liberia, where he saw UNICEF’s ongoing Ebola response and drew attention to the need for continued support to rebuild critical health, education and other essential services that have been disrupted in the crisis.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0459/Jallanzo 23 March 2015

Syria, 2012: Escalating war is taking an increasing toll on Syrian children and their families. By late July, deaths had surpassed 17,000, up to 1 million people had been internally displaced, and over 120,000 refugees – half of them children – had fled to neighbouring countries.

UNICEF supports initiatives in education, water, sanitation and hygiene and child protection, but needs continue to mount. Syrians attempt to cross the border to take refuge in Turkey.©UNICEFNYHQ2012-0570/Romenzi 30 July 2012

Niger, 2012: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – the world’s most endorsed human rights treaty – celebrates its twenty-third anniversary on 20 November 2012. The CRC expresses in international law the rights due every child, including the poorest and most marginalized.

All children have the right to grow “in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,” advises the CRC’s Preamble. A girl leads donkeys to fetch water in Maradi Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0186/Asselin 19 November 2012

Bangladesh, 2013: International Women’s Day celebrates women’s achievements while calling for greater action to ensure that every woman and every girl has equal access to the opportunities and skills that empower her to exercise her voice and create her own future.

With the help of government cash transfers, Eva’s mother, a single parent in Dhaka’s Korail slum, has opened a tea stall. The income she earns supports the family and sends Eva to school.©UNICEF/BANA2013-00671/Khan 9 March 2015

Mauritania, 2015: A boy walks on a sandbank near M’Bera refugee camp. Children account for over half of the 12 million West and Central African people on the move each year, with some 75% of them remaining in sub-Saharan Africa, and less than 1 in 5 heading to Europe.

The region is facing an unprecedented surge in migration, as people seek shelter from conflict, escape poverty or lose their livelihoods due to climate change. Children uprooted are vulnerable to exploitation and violence.

©UNICEF/UN05325/Dragaj 10 July 2017

Nepal, 2016: Chinmaya Shrestha warms her 3-day-old grandson’s legs, at the primary health centre at Gorkha District Hospital. UNICEF has established a tented shelter home at the health facility – providing much-needed refuge, round-the-clock medical care, meals, sanitation facilities and other essential services for pregnant women, mothers and newborns in Gorkha District, epicentre of the devastating 7.

8-magnitude earthquake in the country in April 2015.©UNICEF/UN016486/Shrestha 18 April 2016

Central African Republic, 2014: Three-week-old Francine Melissa sleeps at the displacement site where she and her 14-year-old mother now shelter, in the conflict-affected town of Bambari in Ouaka Province.

The infant was born as the result of her mother’s rape by a rebel soldier while the adolescent was walking to a well to fetch water for her family. UNICEF-supported child protection efforts to provide comprehensive assistance for survivors of gender-based violence are ongoing.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1467/Bindra 29 September 2014

Vanuatu, 2015: Tropical Cyclone Pam, which hit on 13 March, has disrupted access to safe water and sanitation in the South Pacific island nation, increasing children’s risk of water- and vector-borne diseases.

The ‘10,000 in 10’ campaign, launched on 18 March, aims to immunize 10,000 children 6 to 59 months of age against measles and rubella, in 21 villages over a period of 10 days. Children near shore in Port Vila watch a boat further out that is taking an immunization team to a nearby island.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0523/Sokhin 30 March 2015

Bangladesh, 2009: Lacking alternate places to live, some Bangladeshis build their lives on chars – small, sandy islands created, and destroyed, by floods or erosion. In Kurigram District, fishermen navigate thick, early morning fog as they journey toward Jhorgoch Haat, a market open only when the waters of Brahamaputra River recede to expose Char Jhorgoch.

Such temporary markets, which change location as chars appear and disappear, are essential to the way of life for char inhabitants.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2653/Noorani 23 February 2015

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2008: A child shares a one-room home in the Gaza Strip with his family of seven. Children comprise over half of the population in Gaza. With renewed conflict in December 2008, UNICEF urges all parties to abide by their international legal obligation to ensure that children are protected and that they receive essential humanitarian supplies and support.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0151/Davey 5 January 2009

Canada, 2016: Basel Alrashdan (left), 11, making a huge snowball with other sixth graders at St. Jean Elementary School, reached Charlottetown on Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) with his family on 27 December 2015.

The Alrashdans were the first Syrian family to be resettled on P.E.I. “It was really fast and very sad,” Basel says about fleeing heavy fighting in Dara’a, his hometown. “Just take your very important things and put them in a small bag and come with us,” his father told him.

©UNICEF/UN045973/GilbertsonVII_Photo 3 January 2017

Cameroon 2016: Around the world, millions of children have been scarred by violence. Millions more of them live in fear of physical, emotional and sexual violence. Fati (right), 15, now in the Minawao camp for Nigerian refugees with her mother and her baby sister, had been abducted by Boko Haram insurgents, given to a man and forced to be his wife.

She was eventually freed by Cameroonian soldiers and reunited with her family. Physical and psychological abuse can mark children for life.©UNICEF/UN015785/Prinsloo 5 December 2016

Tunisia, 2011: In a transit camp near the Libyan border, 10-month-old Nadia and her mother wait to be repatriated to Ghana. They had been living in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, but fled after the outbreak of conflict.

Over 458,000 people have escaped to Tunisia, and hundreds of thousands more have fled to Egypt, Niger, Algeria and other countries. To assist them, the United Nations has issued a joint appeal for US$407 million, including US$20 million for UNICEF, less than half of which has been funded.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0505/Ramoneda 6 June 2011

Nepal, 2015: Pabitrya Paudyal, 13, stands in front of door – all that remains of a school in Gorkha District that was destroyed during the 25 April earthquake. On 31 May, nearly 14,000 children whose schools were destroyed or heavily damaged in the 25 April and 12 May earthquakes began having classes for the first time in five weeks, in temporary learning centres.

UNICEF and partners have provided learning supplies for the children.©UNICEF/PFPG2015-3197/Panday 1 June 2015

Ukraine, 2017: Vadim Ignatenko, 9, in Avdiivka in Donetsk Oblast, stands outside the building where he used to live. It has been destroyed in the country’s continuing armed conflict. The volatile situation in eastern Ukraine continues to put the lives of children and their families at risk.

Vadim, who has been seriously injured in the ongoing fighting, doesn’t remember much about his childhood before the conflict began. “I remember … running with my friends in the rain,” he said.

©UNICEF/UN0150878/Gilbertson VII Photo 26 December 2017

Serbia, 2011: Breastfeeding is the most effective and inexpensive way to prevent child mortality, but only 39 per cent of children under six months of age were exclusively breastfed in 2012. Aiming to increase global rates, World Breastfeeding Week 2013 – held from 1 to 7 August – focuses on improving support systems for women as they provide children with a healthy start in life.

A woman breastfeeds her newborn at a UNICEF-assisted hospital in Belgrade.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1166/Holt 5 August 2013

Niger, 2009: Children and women shelter from severe flooding at a school in the northern Agadez Region. Over 13,000 homes were destroyed by the floods. In February 2010, the region is still recovering from widespread damage to communities and crops, even as migrants are beginning to arrive from drought-affected southern regions.

Food shortages have prompted an unusually large influx of people, threatening to overwhelm limited food stocks.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1434/Holtz 22 February 2010

Sierra Leone, 2011: Globally, an estimated 215 million children are involved in labour. A violation of children’s basic rights, labour that is detrimental to health or that otherwise impedes development must cease.

Children who work rather than go to school are also more prone to a lifetime of poverty. The World Day against Child Labour – held annually on 12 June – calls for a global commitment to end the harmful practice.

Children at a quarry, Bombali District.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0769/Asselin 10 June 2013

Sri Lanka, 2009: Boys play cricket outside the Vadamunai Government Tamil Mixed School in Batticaloa District, Eastern Province. The district continues to recover from both the 2004 tsunami and the decades-long civil conflict that finally ended in May 2009.

The school was closed due to conflict in 2007, but reopened in January 2009 with support from UNICEF.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2119/Pietrasik 3 May 2010

Mexico 2015: A woman breastfeeds her infant, in Mexico. Every year from 1 to 7 August, World Breastfeeding Week celebrates the life-saving act of breastfeeding, one of the most cost-effective ways a woman can boost her child’s health.

This year, the Week aims to empower women to combine work with breastfeeding and raising their children. A woman’s work opportunities – whether in a formal or informal sector – should never be at odds with her or her child’s well-being.

©UNICEF/MEXA2015-00085/Quintos 3 August 2015

Pakistan, 2011: Women haul water from a pump that is partially submerged in flood water in Sindh Province. The floods, affecting more than 5.4 million people, have severely constricted access to safe water and sanitation.

UNICEF is working with partners to distribute hundreds of thousands of litres of clean water daily, in addition to water purification supplies, helping to avoid the spread of potentially deadly water-borne diseases.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1527/Zaidi 7 November 2011

“We risked our lives to come here,” said Mohammad, 17, “We knew it is not safe. We do it, or we die.” See more In Focus>

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2010: A girl carries cleaning supplies in Mabala Village. Mabala has been certified a ‘Healthy Village’ through a government-implemented, UNICEF-supported water and sanitation programme.

Recent improvements in the country’s water sources and hygiene practices have reduced diarrhoeal disease among small children. Still, access to safe water and sanitation remains among the lowest in the world.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1541/Asselin 6 December 2010

Malaysia, 1992: Rural populations face some of Malaysia’s greatest challenges, including in education. High rates of poverty and geographical isolation present significant barriers to providing rural children with the quality of education they need.

UNICEF is working with the Government to expand educational opportunities for all Malaysia’s children. Marang, a fishing village.©UNICEF/NYHQ1992-0136/Maines 2 April 2012

Somalia, 2011: An armed soldier monitors children and women in a food distribution queue, at a displacement camp in Mogadishu, the still-embattled capital. Famine has been declared in two areas of southern Somalia, part of a drought and nutrition crisis that now threatens 11 million people in the Horn of Africa.

UNICEF and partners are rapidly expanding assistance throughout the region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1183/Holt 25 July 2011

Thailand, 2009: Every year multiple natural hazards affect countries in East Asia and the Pacific. Among them is Thailand, one of the most high-risk countries for such emergencies. Promoting appropriate long-term safeguards and adequate responses to environmental threats is part of ensuring a world fit for children.

Children walk to an early childhood development centre in Phang Nga Province, an area devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2069/Estey 4 June 2012

Haiti, 2012: (Foreground) 5-month-old Widelin Auguste was very ill when authorities rescued him from a substandard institution. He is now living in a care centre in Port-au-Prince until he can be placed in another facility or reunited with his parents.

Some 50,000 Haitian children live in institutions. For children under age 3, prolonged stays in institutions can impede emotional and cognitive development. UNICEF is working with the Government to support optimum alternatives for their care.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1955/Dormino 8 July 2013

Sri Lanka, 2008: Fifth-grade girls from Ak/Al Badhur Vidyalaya School play on the shore at the end of the school day, in the town of Akkarapattu in the eastern Ampara District. Their original school, built 100 metres from the sea, was destroyed during the December 2004 tsunami.

It is among 10 district schools being rebuilt with assistance from UNICEF. UNICEF is also supporting efforts to improve community-based health services, water systems and schools in order to ‘build back better’.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1357/Pietrasik 27 July 2009

Pakistan, 2009: A girl sits in the sugar factory where she and her family are living, in the rural village of Takkar. They have been displaced by fighting between government and opposition forces. Since August 2008, more than 2.

5 million people have fled the conflict; it is the largest and fastest-growing displacement crisis in the world in recent years. UNICEF is providing safe water and sanitation, immunizations, and services to reunite missing children with their families.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0931/Ramoneda 10 August 2009

Haiti, 2010: A girl holds a baby in a makeshift tent on a football pitch in Port-au-Prince. Following the 12 January earthquake, some 370,000 people are living in an estimated 300 improvised settlements around the city.

After decades of hardship and political instability, and despite pressing need, Haitians remain both resilient and inventive amid disaster.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0070/LeMoyne 25 January 2010

Libya, 2012: Since its civil war ended in October 2011, Libya has continued to make significant strides toward recovery – including a return to school for over 1.2 million children. Still, tens of thousands of people remain displaced, public services are not fully restored, and large swathes of cities exposed to fighting remain destroyed.

A girl in Sirte, the scene of a weeks-long final battle.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0159/Diffidenti 25 June 2012

Nepal, 2014: (Centre) UNICEF Ambassador Selena Gomez plays with children at a UNICEF-supported school in Nepal. A recording artist, actress and designer, Ms. Gomez visited the country to bring attention to children in need there and around the globe.

“At first when you witness children living in extreme poverty you wonder how it is possible that they can be deprived of their basic human needs and rights,” she said. “Then you talk to these children and you see hope, promise and a bright future.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0549/Estey 2 June 2014

Moldova, 2004: In late 2011, the world’s population reached 7 billion. Every newborn child has the right to a standard of living adequate for her or his physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.

Ensuring that the youngest among us achieve that right is the surest path to a truly sustainable world. An infant cries in an incubator at a UNICEF-supported hospital in Chisinau.©UNICEF/NYHQ2004-1406/Pirozzi 2 January 2012

Azerbaijan, 2008: A girl weaves on a traditional loom, at a craft centre that supports income-generating programmes for young women, in Baku, the capital. Efforts to ensure the rights of girls and women globally also include promoting their access to education and to maternal and early childhood health services and celebrating their unique cultural skills and heritage.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1770/Pirozzi 30 April 2012

Syrian Arab Republic, 2013: Nearly four years into the Syrian crisis, children continue to suffer the most amid the destruction of basic infrastructure. The conflict has kept nearly 2.3 million children in the country out of school.

In Homs, capital of Homs Governorate, children attend a kindergarten where sounds of the fighting and shelling are at times heard during class, and the students wear their coats indoors to stay warm due to frequent power outages.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1331/Noorani 10 March 2014

Kenya, 2006: A girl attends class in an orphanage in Kibera, a slum area of Nairobi. The orphanage relies on private contributions to provide basic necessities for its children, many of whom have lost their parents to AIDS.

Kibera, with a million inhabitants, is one of the poorest and most densely populated settlements in the world. Its social environment is marked by unstable family structures, violence, sexual exploitation, and drug and alcohol abuse.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-1746/Kamber 26 January 2009

Iraq, 2013: (Foreground, left-right) 12-year-old Safaa helps her 16-year-old sister, Marwa, bake ‘khubz’, a type of flat bread. The sisters and their family are among nine people sharing a tent in the Kawergosk camp for Syrian refugees.

“I can see the desperation on their faces. But all we can do is laugh and smile because this is our life,” Safaa says. “I see them play, and do things, but at the end of the day they’re just sad.

It’s sad, but it’s not going to stop me.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1423/Noorani 10 February 2014

Greece, 2015: Kinan Kadouni, laughs with the Syrian boy he is carrying ashore near the village of Skala Eressos, on the island of Lesbos. A refugee from Syria himself, he assists and welcomes refugees and migrants arriving by sea: “I went directly to him and got him out of the boat and we started playing and laughing.

.. I always try to welcome them with smiling face because I think that will make them comfortable.” One in every four asylum seekers in Europe so far this year has been a child.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2619/GilbertsonVII 26 October 2015

Zimbabwe, 2016: Ongoing, El Niño-induced drought in the country has devastated crops and destroyed livelihoods, and its toll on children’s well-being is only now starting to be felt. More than 4 million Zimbabweans, including 1.

9 million children, will need food aid; and an estimated 90,000 children will need malnutrition treatment. Several struggling families are down to just one meal a day. In Matebeland South Province, families have resorted to eating shrivelled fruit to survive.

©UNICEF/UN032899/Mukwazhi 26 September 2016

Syrian Arab Republic, 2006: Khaled, 13, does homework while tending sheep outside Masoud Village. Though over 90 per cent of Syrian children attend primary school, child labour remains a persistent problem among the country’s poorest.

UNICEF is working with the Ministry of Social Affairs to address the worst forms of child labour.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-0752/Noorani 8 November 2010

Lebanon, 2008: A girl stands in a destroyed building in the Nahr el-Bared camp for Palestinian refugees. In 2007, nearly 95 per cent of the camp was destroyed and nearly 27,000 people displaced by a conflict between the Lebanese military and a rebel group.

Residents are still recovering. Over 400,000 Palestinian refugees are registered in Lebanon; many of them have limited access to social services and employment.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0517/Brooks 22 August 2011

Bangladesh, 2018: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Priyanka Chopra hugs a Rohingya child at a UNICEF-supported nutrition centre in the Jamtoli makeshift refugee camp, in Cox’s Bazar District. With more than 163,000 Rohingya children under age 5 sheltering in refugee camps, and 60 babies on average being born each day, nutrition centres provide a vital lifeline to screen and treat children for malnourishment and to help mothers ensure that their babies get the best possible start in life.

©UNICEF/UN0211302/Sokol 29 May 2018

United Republic of Tanzania, 2010: A 14-year-old girl stands outside the bar where she is a sex worker. “After my father died, I had to do something to survive,” she said. “I feel bad doing this because I’m still a child.

” The Convention on the Rights of the Child requires all state signatories to “protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse” including “the exploitative use of children in prostitution.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1813/Noorani 20 June 2011

Iraq, 2014: Children displaced by conflict to Kurdistan Region – which experiences the country’s coldest temperatures – face the deadly threat of exposure to frigid winds and freezing rain. With just 52 per cent of overall funding secured so far, nearly 250,000 children will likely go without warm clothing.

A UNICEF-supported distribution of essential winter supplies to displaced children in the mountainous Penjaween area in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, on a snowy day.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-3159/Anmar 8 December 2014

Viet Nam, 2012: Up to 1.5 million children live with disabilities in Viet Nam, 1 of 155 countries that has signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Though challenges remain, resource centres to provide support in education and social protection as well as the Government’s commitment to inclusive policies are helping children with disabilities reach their full potential.

Nguyen Thi Anh, 14, who is deaf, in Da Nang.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2295/Macksey 1 July 2013

Niger, 2014: Emphasis on the importance of smarter and more equitable investment to give all children a fair chance to survive, thrive and prosper is part of UNICEF’s core message at the Third International Conference on Finance for Development, taking place 13–16 July 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Vulnerable children living in an area hosting Malian refugees receive enriched porridge through a joint UNICEF/WFP and UNHCR feeding programme.©UNICEF/UNI164939/Terdjman 13 July 2015

Guinea, 2015: “I was taken to an Ebola treatment center to see people who were sick with the disease and that strengthened my belief in Ebola’s existence. I knew I had an important role to play in the community and I gave more than 20 speeches in the mosque to convince people about Ebola,” said Imam Elhadj Cheikhouna Sylla.

“Ebola has affected the way we live together, and my hope is that there is more peace in the country.”©UNICEF/UNI200637/Grile 11 January 2016

Vanuatu, 2015: Tens of thousands of children are in need of immediate assistance after Tropical Cyclone Pam ravaged the island nation. At least half of the population is estimated affected – about 60,000 of them are children.

The Category 5 storm, which hit on 13 March, has damaged infrastructure and disrupted key services, putting children’s health and safety at risk. In the storm-damaged Mele neighbourhood in Port Vila, the capital, children and families no longer have access to safe water.

©UNICEFNYHQ2015-0435/UNICEF Pacific 16 March 2015

Netherlands, 2015: Arousig, 16, from the Syrian Arab Republic, takes a ‘selfie’ with her family at the Asylum Seeking Centre in Heerlen. “When I look at this picture of me and my family, I really hope that we will soon have a place of our own,” she says.

“I also hope Syria will become safe again. My father has grown grey hair … because he cannot see his brother. He is still in Syria.” Arousig was a participant in a UNICEF ‘EYE SEE’ photography workshop focusing on child rights.

©UNICEF/UNI201387/Arousig 23 November 2015

Japan, 2011: Five-year-old Neena Sasaki surveys the wreckage of her home in Rikuzen-Takaata, Iwate Prefecture. The seaside town was devastated by the 11 March earthquake and tsunami. By early April, the death toll had risen to 12,087, with another 15,552 people still missing.

A damaged nuclear power plant in the tsunami zone continues to release dangerous levels of radiation, posing additional threats to the welfare of nearby residents. United Nations agencies are assisting the Government’s relief efforts.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0427/Dean 4 April 2011

Belize, 2016: Orin, 4, playing at the seashore with his father, Marshall Mejia, in their hometown of Dangriga, is regularly exposed to stimulating environments and nurturing activities. “We must prepare children for school long before they arrive in the classroom…,” Mr.

Mejia says. Children’s formative years are critical for their cognitive, social, emotional and physical development. What children experience in the earliest years of life shapes and defines their futures.

©UNICEF/UN035756/LeMoyne 16 January 2017

Mali, 2013: The International Day of Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action is held annually on 4 April to draw attention to the continuing threat of landmines for people living in former or current war zones.

In contested regions of Mali, retreating rebels have left landmines and other unexploded ordnance in their wake, particularly threatening children. A youth in Mopti attends a UNICEF-supported workshop about the dangers of these weapons.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0126/Dicko 1 April 2013

Ethiopia, 2014: The Day of the African Child, celebrated annually on 16 June, commemorates the thousands of courageous children in Soweto, South Africa – hundreds of whom were wounded or killed – who marched in 1976 to protest apartheid and to demand equal education.

Their legacy continues to build a better future for African children. In Ethiopia, the Government’s Alternative Basic Education programme is helping nomadic, pastoral children in the remote Afar Region attend and stay in school.

©UNICEF/ETHA_2014_00079/Ose 16 June 2014

Nigeria, 2017: [NAME CHANGED] Dada, 15, who escaped from Boko Haram captivity, shelters in Maiduguri, Borno State. Three years after the world was outraged by the abduction of over 200 schoolgirls in Chibok, millions of children and families continue to face violence, loss and hardship as a result of the insurgency.

Fearing stigma and distrust in their communities, many children who have been associated with Boko Haram keep secret the horrors they endured.©UNICEF/UN058882/Gilbertson / VII Photo 17 April 2017

Nigeria, 2007: Over 14 million children were vaccinated in a four-day campaign covering 12 states. The support of governments, partner agencies, religious leaders, teachers and schools is vital to eradicate polio in Nigeria, one of only four countries where wild poliovirus is still endemic.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0232/Nesbitt 13 October 2008

South Sudan, 2012: Some 181,600 refugees from fighting in Sudan’s Blue Nile and South Kordofan States had fled to South Sudan by early December. After a decades-long war, South Sudan seceded from Sudan in July 2011, but intra-country and cross-border conflict related to disputes over land and resources has continued.

The youngest children remain most vulnerable. One-month-old Philip Sali and his mother, in the Doro camp for refugees, Upper Nile State.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1396/Sokol 14 January 2013

State of Palestine, 2014: Mohammed Fakhri Naim, 3, is recovering from injuries he sustained during missile fire on a school where he and his family had taken shelter. “There’s no safe place,” said his father.

“I left my home, and it was bombed. I took my family to the school, and it was bombed. There’s no way to go.” Suffering displacement, injury and even death, children continue to bear unacceptable consequences of the recent escalation of violence between Israel and Gaza.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1012crop/d’Aki 4 August 2014

Viet Nam, 2009: Hmong children attend a UNICEF-supported school in the remote Lao Cai Province. The school teaches classes in Vietnamese and the local Hmong dialect, part of a Government initiative to improve bilingual education for minority children.

Ethnic minorities have high drop-out rates due to a lack of bilingual teachers and curricula; the Government, UNICEF and partners are working to reverse this trend.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0234/Estey 29 November 2010

India, 2013: Carrying jars of water, women head out to relieve themselves, in Madhya Pradesh. Around the world, some 2.5 billion people lack access to an improved sanitation facility, and just over 1 billion people – 15 per cent of the global population – still practise open defecation.

Each year on 19 November, World Toilet Day galvanizes efforts to ensure that proper sanitation – a life-saving development and a basic human right – becomes accessible by all.©UNICEF/INDA2013-00393/Romana 18 November 2013

Afghanistan, 2007: Abdul (far right) sits with seven of his ten children in their home in Daraiyum District. His wife died at age 38 while delivering her last child. Afghanistan’s maternal mortality rate is among the highest in the world, aggravated by women having too early, too frequent, and too many pregnancies.

Only 16 per cent of Afghan women receive antenatal care, and only 14 per cent of births are attended by skilled health workers.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1415/Khemka 19 January 2009

Benin, 2010: A girl walks on cinderblocks to avoid floodwater as she exits a fish store in Cotonou. Widespread flooding has affected over 680,000 people, including 195,000 children, throughout the country.

Crop damage and depleted fish stocks have led to concerns about food security, and waterborne diseases are a paramount threat. Some 800 cases of cholera have already been reported.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2107/Asselin 25 October 2010

DR Congo, 2010: On 6 March 2012, the world met the Millennium Development Goal to half the number of people without access to safe water, in advance of the 2015 deadline. But, disparities loom large, including in Sub-Saharan Africa, home to over 40 per cent of people who still lack access to this vital resource.

Marie Bola carries a water bucket, in her village of Mabala. The country’s drinking water coverage remains among the lowest worldwide.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1553/Asselin 12 March 2012

Madagascar, 2009: International Literacy Day – held each year on 8 September – celebrates literacy as a basic human right. Begun by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1965, the event heralds a new theme annually, this year’s being the importance of literacy to achieving peace.

Literacy lies at the core of many of the child rights UNICEF works to protect, including the rights to education and expression. A classroom, Itasy Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1242/Pirozzi 10 September 2012

Mali, 2018: Malado Diarra, 16 days old, lies cradled in her mother’s arms, at the community health centre in Koumantou. Malado was born without complications and in good health. Simple, practical solutions can be the difference in whether a newborn lives or dies.

Thanks to the clean water and hygiene training provided at the health facility, she was at less risk of contracting dangerous diseases or getting infections.©UNICEF/UN0188888/Njiokiktjien VII Photo 7 May 2018

Nepal, 2016: Purni Maya Gurung and her family live in a temporary shelter in Laprak Village in Gorkha District, epicentre of the massive 7.8-magnitude earthquake that hit in April 2015. With the arrival of snow and the cold, hundreds of earthquake survivors – especially elderly people and young children sheltering in high-altitude areas – are now struggling to cope with the harsh winter weather adding to their hardships.

Mrs. Gurung has received an emergency cash grant from UNICEF.©UNICEF/UN017121/Shrestha 25 April 2016

Iraq, 2017: Akram, 6, in west Mosul, looks at some of the devastation caused by intense fighting. “I don’t know if things will go back to how they were before,” he said. More than 21,400 homes have been damaged or destroyed in Mosul, where children and their families – some trapped or under siege for months or years – faced violence and heavy bombardments.

The poorest families have no other choice but to live in the ruins of their homes – potentially dangerous for their children.©UNICEF/UN0159073/Rfaat 12 February 2018

Guinea-Bissau, 2012: Political instability and deep poverty continue to limit economic and social development in Guinea-Bissau. The country has the world’s seventh-highest under-five mortality rate, and maternal mortality is also high.

UNICEF works with the Government to support a variety of programmes, including in health, nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene. A family journeys to the village of Tebe-Zinho, where the children will receive vaccinations and other health services.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2113/LeMoyne 15 July 2013

Greece, 1946 and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2015: Girls peer through the window of a schoolhouse where a medical clinic has been set up, and a young child refugee stands with adults at a wire fence in Gevgelija.

UNICEF’s humanitarian work began in the aftermath of World War II – and by the mid 1950’s millions of children were receiving aid. Seventy years later, refugee and migrants are entering Europe at levels not seen since World War II.

©UNICEF/UN04763/GilbertsonVII 28 December 2015

Sudan, 2009: Fatma Salih, 5, in Kassala State. Her mother chose not to subject her to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) after participating in community dialogues about the related health risks.

In northern Sudan, 89 per cent of women and girls aged 15-49 have been cut. The Government, NGOs and religious leaders are encouraging communities to discuss the practice and its harms.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1472/Holt 15 February 2010

Côte d’Ivoire, 2010: A boy stands in a charcoal production yard where his mother works. Lacking alternatives, many women must bring their children with them to unsafe working environments. Since the contested 28 November election, the country has been destabilized by outbreaks of violence, forcing over 15,000 Ivorians to flee to neighbouring countries.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2491/Kamber 3 January 2011

Uganda, 2010: Children collect water at a camp for people displaced by flooding and landslides in the Eastern Region. On 1 March, heavy rains caused the Manafwa and Namatala Rivers to burst their banks, engulfing villages and destroying farmland.

Thousands of people were displaced, and at least 90 were killed, by ensuing landslides. UNICEF is providing tents, safe water and a range of other assistance.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0397/Hyun 29 March 2010

Yemen, 2018: A girl injured as she and her family tried to flee the fighting lies in a hospital in the port city of Hodeidah. Children are the primary victims of the conflict, and its consequences threaten millions more.

Hodeidah is the single most important lifeline for the food and basic supplies entering war-torn Yemen. Worldwide, about 30 million children displaced by conflict need immediate protection and sustainable solutions over the long term.

©UNICEF/UN0216979/Ayyashi 25 June 2018

Ukraine, 2014: To escape the ongoing conflict, Svetlana [NAME CHANGED] and her baby son took refuge in a bomb shelter, where they have been for several months, in the city of Donetsk. Over 1,000 children in the city are now staying in underground bomb shelters – often in unsanitary, crowded and freezing conditions and with little or no access to food, water, sanitation or basic hygiene supplies.

UNICEF continues to provide aid in conflict-affected areas in Donetsk Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-3501/Volpi 2 February 2015

Bangladesh, 2017: People heading for a shelter use a makeshift raft to cross flood waters in Kurigram District following exceptionally heavy monsoon rains in the country. An estimated 3.9 million people in 20 districts have been affected by flooding, which has left children and families in need of temporary shelters and access to food and safe water and sanitation.

Over 282,400 people are now being housed in more than 1,390 shelters in flood-affected areas.©UNICEF/UN076394/Saeed 21 August 2017

Liberia, 2012: Deeply ingrained gender inequities continue to place Liberian girls and women at risk. During the country’s 14-year civil war, which ended in 2003, many girls and women were subjected to rape or other violence; national recovery is continuing.

UNICEF supports programmes to prevent gender violence and aid those affected. A transition centre in Monrovia helps vulnerable children, including survivors of gender-based violence.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1122/Noorani 8 April 2013

Germany, 2015: A Syrian couple is among a throng of refugees and migrants waiting to be registered as asylum seekers in Berlin. Increasing numbers of families and children, including from the Syrian Arab Republic, are seeking protection and refuge in the country.

The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has forced millions to flee their homes. Many of them are risking additional hardships and dangers as they attempt to find haven outside their homeland.©UNICEF//NYHQ2015-2833/GilbertsonVII 9 November 2015

Mexico, 1960: At a UNICEF-assisted clinic, Concepcion, 3, wears braces on her polio-weakened legs. Three decades later, in 1994, the Americas became the first geographic region to eradicate polio. Today, the GAVI Alliance, which includes UN agencies, private foundations, governments and the vaccine industry, holds a pledging conference to increase donations for immunization programmes that will save an additional 4 million lives by 2015.

©UNICEF/NYHQ1960-0008/ 13 June 2011

Aruba, 2011: Children play outside the Imeldahof Home in Noord, a town on the Caribbean island of Aruba, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Home offers a safe haven for child victims of sexual abuse or domestic violence.

Recent government funding has expanded these vital social services, but needs far exceed resources.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1886/LeMoyne 16 April 2012

Nepal, 2014: Indra, with her husband and two daughters, remembers how she felt two years ago upon learning she was living with HIV: “I was so shocked that I neither spoke nor cried. I thought I would die soon.

” Now seven months into her third pregnancy, she regularly receives antenatal care and services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, at a hospital in Achham District. UNICEF is supporting the Ministry of Health and Population’s work to expand access to PMTCT programmes.

©UNICEF/HIVA2014-00116/Karki 1 December 2014

South Sudan, 2016: Eliza’s son, 1-year old Jal Puok, was diagnosed with one of the worst cases of severe acute malnutrition that doctors at Mercy Hospital, in Juba, had seen. Over a quarter of a million children are already severely acutely malnourished in the country – where famine has been declared in some areas in 2017.

About 100,000 South Sudanese are currently facing starvation, and an estimated 5.5 million are expected to face acute food and nutrition insecurity by July 2017.©UNICEF/UN034425/Rich 20 February 2017

Norway, 2018: Syrian refugee Lilas Alzaeem, now living in Oslo and attending the Faculty of Medicine at university, came to Norway from Damascus five years ago. Most Nordic States’ education systems have coped with the arrival of refugee children since 2015.

But, despite a world-leading record of commitment to child rights, Nordic countries continues to face challenges to provide full protection and services for children seeking asylum.©UNICEF/UN0186330/Christiansen 26 March 2018

Chad, 2012: Beset by chronic stunting, endemic poverty and illiteracy, as well as inadequate social services, Chadian children are among the world’s most vulnerable. In Chad, one of eight Sahelian countries currently affected by a food crisis, some 127,300 under-five children may die of nutrition-related illnesses.

A renewed global commitment to child survival entails reaching those most at risk. A child is weighed in a UNICEF-supported feeding centre in N’Djamena.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0286/Holt 16 July 2012

El Salvador, 2017: Natividad Sánchez Ventura, 7, has been swimming at her local recreation centre for the past 18 months as a way to avoid her neighbourhood’s dangerous streets. She and her siblings are among over 1,000 children taking part in weekly sports and recreation activities through a comprehensive municipal violence-prevention project supported by UNICEF.

In an area rife with gang violence, sport and recreational activities offer children a haven from insecurity on the streets.©UNICEF/UN0156174/Martinez 15 January 2018

Niger, 2005: A woman adjusts the sling carrying her two-year-old child. Niger, together with Sierra Leone and Afghanistan, has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. On 7 June, UNICEF joins an array of international partners for the opening of the Women Deliver conference in Washington, DC, USA.

It is an all-out effort to renew commitments to Millennium Development Goal 5, which calls for radical reductions in maternal mortality and universal access to reproductive health.©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-1050/Chalasani 7 June 2010

Côte d’Ivoire, 2011: Boys sleep on a bench oustide a primary school in Danané. Over 750 people have taken refuge in the school to escape conflict in the area, part of the widespread violence that erupted after the 28 November 2010 presidential election.

Over 41,000 Ivorians have now fled the country, and 42,000 are internally displaced.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0154/Asselin 14 March 2011

Iraq, 2017: A woman carrying her child through rubble and debris from destroyed buildings and vehicles flees the Old City for safe areas in conflict-affected Mosul. Three years in horrific and dangerous conditions and months of intense fighting have left children and families in Mosul struggling to cope.

Without immediate care, protection and crucial services, the lives and futures of nearly 27 million children in Iraq and other conflict-affected countries in the region are at risk.©UNICEF/UN073067/Romenzi 31 July 2017

El Salvador, 2016: [NAME CHANGED] For 8th grader Patricia, 14, in Soyapango municipality in San Salvador Department, even travel to and from school is dangerous, because of widespread gang violence in her community.

In Latin America and the Caribbean, homicide is the leading cause of death among adolescents. “[I] am afraid, I am scared, because I don’t know what could happen to me,” Patricia said. Every child has the right to protection from all forms of violence.

©UNICEF/UN018674/Zehbrauskas 6 November 2017

Afghanistan, 2018: Two girls share a book in an accelerated learning centre in Sharak e Muhajireen Village in Daikundi Province. The rate of out-of-school children has risen in the country due to ongoing conflict and worsening security– combined with deeply engrained poverty and discrimination against girls.

UNICEF supports accelerated learning centres for children up to age 17 who have missed out on a primary education.©UNICEF/UN0211158/Rezayee 4 June 2018

South Sudan, 2018: In mid-May, 210 children were formally released from armed groups in a release ceremony held in Pibor. Although close to 600 children have been released from armed forces and groups in the country so far this year, an estimated 19,000 children are still in their ranks.

From the Central African Republic to South Sudan, from the Syrian Arab Republic to Afghanistan, attacks on children in conflict have continued unabated during the first four months of the year.©UNICEF/UN0209628/Chol 21 May 2018

South Sudan, 2017: Sunlight filtering into a classroom through the reed walls streaks across children’s faces, in Upper Nile Primary School at the Bentiu Protection of Civilians site, in Unity State.

For students, classes provide some respite from the country’s ongoing war – now entering its fifth year. More than half of the child population is affected by the continuing conflict, with nearly three quarters of them out of school due to insecurity, displacement and attacks on schools.

©UNICEF/UN068335/Hatcher-Moore 18 December 2017

Libya, 2011: Still emerging from civil conflict, Libya is redefining its institutions and its place in the world. The country’s 2.3 million children are part of this evolving process; they also bear psychological scars from the violence they have witnessed.

UNICEF supports a range of child protection initiatives in the country, as well as programmes to promote children’s inclusion in building a society that respects their views and needs. A boy sells CDs on a street in Tripoli.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1501/Diffidenti 13 August 2012

Guatemala, 2012: A health centre in Cobán Municipality. Gains for children in Guatemala include comprehensive vaccination coverage and improvements in birth registration. But widespread poverty is linked to other threats – high rates of chronic malnutrition and violence and low national education levels among them.

UNICEF is working with the Government to sustain achievements and address lingering challenges.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2222/Markisz 3 June 2013

Central African Republic, 2012: 10 December is Human Rights Day, an annual celebration of the United Nations’ adoption in 1948 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Zainab [NAME CHANGED] is 16.

She joined an armed rebel group in which she was frequently sexually abused by male soldiers. Now recovering at a UNICEF-assisted centre in N’dele, she is one of thousands of children associated with armed groups worldwide who are deprived of their fundamental rights.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0883/Sokol 10 December 2012

The Syrian Arab Republic, 2018: One-month-old Judy received much-needed vaccinations and a check-up after arriving with her mother, Samira, and grandfather at a shelter in Adra for families fleeing Eastern Ghouta.

Although a record 123 million children were immunized globally in 2017, over 19 million children missed out on vaccinations. Almost 8 million (40 per cent) of them live in fragile or humanitarian settings, including countries affected by conflict.

©UNICEF/UN0187717/Sanadiki 16 July 2018

Rwanda, 2004: A boy who lost his left foot to a landmine somersaults on a lake shore in the town of Ghisenyi, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo. He and his playmate are among more than 7,000 Rwandan children left homeless or orphaned by the 1994 genocide.

Both boys receive care and support at a UNICEF-assisted day-care centre that provides food, shelter, medical assistance and literacy courses for children living or working on the streets.©UNICEF/NYHQ2004-1299/Pirozzi 24 August 2009

Ethiopia, 2014: Child refugees from South Sudan attend a makeshift school in Kule camp. Since mid-December 2013, conflict has forced 451,000 South Sudanese to seek refuge in neighbouring countries, including Ethiopia.

In July, UNICEF Ethiopia increased its emergency requirements for 2014 from US$36.08 million to $42.3 million to reflect the additional resources needed for the South Sudan refugee crisis ($18.5 million).

As of 15 August, the overall appeal was only 24 per cent funded.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1530/Ose 22 September 2014

Philippines, 2013: A girl is vaccinated against measles, in Tacloban City, where recovery from the devastation caused by Typhoon Haiyan is still ongoing. Through a mass vaccination campaign led by the Government – with support from UNICEF, the World Health Organization and other partners – over 35,000 children have been immunized against measles and polio, and more than 24,000 have received vitamin A supplements to help boost their immunity.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1226/Papowitz 23 December 2013

Burkina Faso, 2012: The Sahel region’s current food shortages combine the effects of changing global climate patterns, entrenched poverty and unsustainable development practice. The result is a nutrition crisis threatening over 1 million under-five children.

The 20–22 June United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development – known as Rio+20 – aims to unite governments around a roadmap to advance sustainable solutions for all. A community handpump, in Est Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0360/Asselin 18 June 2012

Iraq, 2007: A woman and child exit a Najaf cemetery after visiting the grave of a family member. Iraq’s children continue to suffer the consequences of 25 years of war and sanctions. Some 4 million Iraqis, half of them children, have been displaced since resurgent conflict began in 2003.

One in five Iraqi children has stunted growth, 1 in 13 is underweight, half are missing routine vaccinations and 1 in 5 girls is not in school.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2320/Kamber 16 March 2009

Sudan, 2006: A class at Comboni Primary School in Rumbek in Southern Sudan. After decades of civil war, the government continues to work with partners to rebuild its education infrastructure. UNICEF is supporting the ‘Go to School’ initiative, which aims to enrol more than a million children in primary school.

The project includes the renovation of existing buildings and the construction of up to 250 new schools with safe water and sanitation facilities.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-0890/Furrer 5 October 2009

Ukraine, 2016: Artem, 7, with UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Orlando Bloom at his school, wants to be a ninja when he grows up, to keep his family safe. Artem attends School #2 in Myronivskyi, in eastern Ukraine, just kilometres from the frontline.

About 300,000 children in the conflict-affected region are in immediate need of education assistance. Education Cannot Wait, a UNICEF supported fund launching in May 2016, aims to give access to learning to every child in need in emergencies.

©UNICEF/UN017934/Georgiev 9 May 2016

Guinea-Bissau, 2012: A vaccination team treks to Ga-Toure Village to reach children in the area during a UNICEF-supported national campaign. Despite tremendous gains in expanding immunization access in Africa – rapidly reducing child mortality – one child in five does not receive needed vaccines.

The first-ever Ministerial Conference on Immunization in Africa convenes 24-25 February 2016 in Ethiopia with a focus on ensuring access to life-saving vaccines for all on the continent.©UNICEF/UNI137297/LeMoyne 22 February 2016

Haiti, 2016: (Left to right) Élodie, 7, Givelore, 8, Francesca. 6, and Érica, 8, are glad to be back at Notre Dame de Lourdes School in the city of Jérémie, in Grand Anse Department. Three months after the devastation caused by Hurricane Matthew, including to education facilities, most of the affected schools have reopened.

Notre Dame de Lourdes, which was among more than 700 schools damaged during the Category 4 storm, was able to reopen quickly thanks to support from UNICEF.©UNICEF/UN047536/Bradley 9 January 2017

Tuvalu, 2015: Children play hide and seek in Teone’s graveyard. Massive coastal erosion in Tuvalu has greatly increased the threat of cyclones and flood surges, stressing already limited and fragile water resources by contaminating fresh water supplies with salt water.

Rising sea levels and the increased frequency of extreme weather events all threaten the water supplies children rely on, undermining safe sanitation and hygiene practices.©UNICEF/UN055822/Sokhin 20 March 2017

Greece, 2017: Syrians Rosa Hamy and her children, living in a refugee camp near Thessaloniki, are among thousands of people in limbo in European transit countries, due to border closures. Women separated from their husbands, and their children, suffer from anxiety and depression as they wait to learn if they can continue on to reach their loved ones.

“We are stuck here,” Mrs. Hamy said. “[The children] don’t eat their food, and they’re tired and stressed all the time.… I don’t know what I will do.”©UNICEF/UN057969/Gilbertson VII Photo 1 May 2017

Central African Republic, 2014: As conflict limits access to health and other services, living conditions for children in the Central African Republic continue to deteriorate. Rates of malnutrition are on the rise, leaving displaced children especially vulnerable.

A girl receives a nutrition screening in a neighbourhood of Bangui, where she and others have taken refuge. The yellow on the armband indicates that she is at risk of becoming malnourished.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0401/LeMoyne 7 April 2014

Peru, 2011: One-year-old Luis and his mother, Maria Broncano Mejia, are indigenous Quechua who live in the Andean community of Llacuash. Indigenous children continue to face unequal access to basic services.

UNICEF is working with the Government to ensure that more indigenous children are legally registered as citizens, enabling them to enrol in school and access national health services.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1599/LeMoyne 24 October 2011

Belize, 2016: Allizon Stefany Escobar, 4, and her great-grandmother, Conzuelo Flores, play in a river near their home, in Cayo District. Water is not only essential for quenching thirst or protecting health, it is also vital for creating jobs and supporting economic, social, and human development.

World Water Day, held annually on 22 March, focuses attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources.©UNICEF/UN032052/LeMoyne 19 March 2018

South Sudan, 2014: A boy in the Mingkaman camp for displaced people. Some 710,600 people – including an estimated 380,000 children – have been displaced internally since fighting broke out anew on 15 December 2013.

UNICEF is reaching children with critical support in water, sanitation and hygiene, nutrition, health, education and protection, but needs remain urgent. Of the US$75.1 million UNICEF requires for emergency response between January and June 2014, 80 per cent remains unfunded.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1424/Knowles-Coursin 3 March 2014

Greece, 2017: In an attempt to cross into central Europe, Algerian boys scramble onto the underframe of a departing train, at a railway yard outside Thessaloniki. Globally, the number of refugee and migrant children travelling alone has increased nearly five-fold since 2010 – a record high.

At least 300,000 unaccompanied and separated children were recorded in some 80 countries in 2015–2016. When they cannot find opportunities to move legally, children resort to dangerous routes.©UNICEF/UN057968/Gilbertson VII Photo 22 May 2017

South Sudan, 2014: A girl holds her baby sister while waiting to collect food rations in the town of Mingkaman. They are among 1.1 million people, including 588,222 children, who have been displaced internally since renewed violence broke out in mid-December 2013.

A nutrition crisis that threatens to become a full-blown famine and seasonal flooding that increases the risk of disease and are compounding the dangers the country’s vulnerable children already face.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0351/Holt 11 August 2014

Nepal, 2015: When the devastating 7.8-magnitude earthquake hit Nepal on 25 April, survival was not the only concern for (centre) 17-year-old Rojina Chauhan. She had also gone into labour and would give birth to her son that day.

Now nicknamed Bhukampa Bahadur (meaning ‘earthquake brave’), the 3-month-old boy has become a symbol of hope for villagers. “They come here every day just to see him, hoping that he brings good luck to them,” says Rojina.

©UNICEF/UNI189493/Panday 27 July 2015

Sierra Leone, 2010: Ten-year-old Amos Koroma, a former diamond mine worker, speaks to a local child welfare group in Kono District. Nearly half of Sierra Leone’s children are involved in some form of labour.

UNICEF is working with the Government and other partners to expand children’s access to education and basic health care, measures that are critical to improving their welfare and future prospects.©UNICEFNYHQ2010-0671/Asselin 5 September 2011

Bangladesh, 2017: Rohingya refugee children and women arrive in Bangladesh from Myanmar on a makeshift raft. This refugee crisis is a children’s crisis. Since 25 August 2017, an estimated 688,000 Rohingya refugees have entered Bangladesh to escape the escalation of violence against them in Myanmar’s Rakhine State.

Nearly 60 per cent of them are children. Their lives in limbo, the Rohingya are deprived of their basic rights and in dire need of humanitarian assistance and protection.©UNICEF/UN0144601/Brown 26 February 2018

Bangladesh, 2014: A UNICEF-supported national nutrition security programme funded by the European Union (EU) aims to permanently reduce the rates of under-five child and maternal under-nutrition in the country.

(Left-right) sisters Samira, 14, and Sabonni, 3, in Sharisha Bari Village, Jamalpur District, are eating more nutritiously as a result of the programme, which is part of a four-year UNICEF/EU global initiative that focuses on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-3254/Noorani 29 December 2014

Uganda, 2007: Free primary education has raised enrolment rates to 83 per cent in Uganda. Still, children – especially girls – of the semi-nomadic pastoralist Karamojongs face additional barriers to education; less than 40 per cent of the community’s children attend school.

A UNICEF-supported non-formal educational model, sensitive to Karamojong culture, is helping to boost enrolment. A Karamojong girl runs to class in Naitakwaé Town.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2389/LeMoyne 21 May 2012

Haiti, 2008: Two thousand Haitians, displaced by successive tropical storms and hurricanes, live in tents near the city of Gonaives. The storms killed 793 people and affected an additional 800,000. Haiti remains the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere; an estimated 24 per cent of children under five suffer from chronic malnutrition and only half of eligible children attend primary school.

This deprivation is exacerbated by volatile food prices and frequent natural disasters.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1407/LeMoyne 30 March 2009

Nigeria, 2017: Education activist Malala Yousafzai meets with schoolgirls displaced by the Boko Haram crisis, in Maiduguri, epicentre of the crisis in the country’s north-east – where 3 million children need support to keep learning.

“Nigeria is the richest country in Africa, but has more girls out of school than any country in the world,” Ms. Yousafzai said. “For these girls and for their country’s future, Nigeria’s leaders must immediately prioritize education.

”©UNICEF/UN072059/Abubakar 24 July 2017

Sudan, 2011: An infant sleeps near a poster from the recent referendum on independence in Southern Sudan. After two decades of civil war, the people of Southern Sudan voted overwhelmingly to establish an independent country, which will be created in July of this year.

Still, outbreaks of violence continue, and the situation for children and women remains critical.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0446/deViguerie 11 April 2011

Malawi, 2002: A woman chops wood on a hillside scarred by soil erosion, in the village of Chipumi. She plans to sell the wood to buy food for her family. UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action Report 2009 notes that 1.

4 million Malawians are at risk of having insufficient food. High prices and years of combined droughts and floods have caused chronic malnutrition. The food crisis is part of a region-wide shortage affecting several countries in southern Africa.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2002-0260/Vitale 23 March 2009

Ethiopia, 2010: Torrential rain begins falling in the Tigray Region, an area that is now affected by the Horn of Africa’s worst drought in 60 years. Changing weather is exacerbating nutritional deficiency and threats of disease for Ethiopia’s children, but UNICEF is working with the Government to address short-term needs and build long-term solutions, including rainwater harvesting, to improve food and safe water security.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1734/Marinovitch 17 October 2011

Albania, 2008: Boys attend school in Tomin village. On 20 November 2014, the world celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the most rapidly and widely ratified international human rights treaty in history.

To ensure the realization of every child’s right to education – essential to accessing future opportunities – the CRC calls for governments to make primary education compulsory and available free to all.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0142/Pirozzi 22 December 2014

India, 2017: (Standing at centre) Naazma Begum, a rag picker, is a staunch vaccine advocate in her close-knit, urban slum community – where most mothers do not understand the long-term health benefits of immunization.

Today, a growing number of unvaccinated children live in poor, densely populated urban communities, where immunization coverage is limited. India’s immunization programme reaches about 26 million children nationwide with vaccines covering 12 diseases.

#VaccinesWork.©UNICEF/UN058123/Vishwanathan 24 April 2017

Burkina Faso, 2012: UNICEF and partners celebrate Global Handwashing Day annually on 15 October to underscore the importance of handwashing with soap – a simple, but life-saving, act of good hygiene.

Handwashing with water alone is not sufficient to destroy many disease-causing pathogens, including those causing diarrhoea and pneumonia, two leading killers of children. Women wash the hands of twin girls before a meal, in Plateau-Central Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0343/Asselin 15 October 2012

Georgia, 2008: A woman sleeps in a camp for people displaced by the August 2008 conflict between the Russian Federation and Georgia. Some 128,000 people were internally displaced, while 30,000 took refuge in Russia.

UNICEF support includes safe water and education supplies.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0685/Volpe 15 September 2008

UNICEF Headquarters, 2013: Global pop superstar Katy Perry was appointed UNICEF’s newest Goodwill Ambassador on 3 December. In the role, Ms. Perry will work to engage young people in speaking out about issues affecting their lives – and to enlist them in creating solutions to those challenges.

“I am … committed to doing everything I can to help children and adolescents who come from such different backgrounds but want the same thing: a brighter future,” she said.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1125/Stubblebine 9 December 2013

India, 2014: A girl at school, in India. Over the past 15 years, collective efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals – ambitious objectives to be achieved by 2015 that would realize a brighter future for all – have yielded significant gains worldwide.

But the achievements made on a large scale conceal inequities that continue to threaten the most vulnerable children. The next 15 years provide an opportunity to ensure that the progress we make for children reaches every child.

©UNICEF/INDA2014-00687/Singh 29 June 2015

Bangladesh, 2008: A boy sleeps at a ferry terminal in Dhaka. Urban life in Bangladesh is rife with stark inequalities, especially for the hundreds of thousands of children living on the streets. Existing on the margins of society, these children are especially vulnerable to abuse and exploitation and often forced to work, thereby precluding their possibility of going to school.

UNICEF supports programmes to better protect and educate children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1836/Noorani 22 October 2012

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2009: A bird flies over the remains of a building in Gaza City. It is now one year since the Israeli 22-day military incursion into the Gaza Strip that began on 27 December 2008.

More than 1,300 Gazans, including 430 children, died in the conflict. Eighty per cent of the population remains dependent upon food assistance.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0046/El_Baba 28 December 2009

Tunisia, 2011: A newborn sleeps in a transit camp along the Libyan border. Her parents are Somali migrants who have fled the escalating conflict in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. By early April, 430,949 people had evacuated the country, most of them fleeing to Tunisia or Egypt.

UNICEF is providing basic services and psychosocial support for children stranded in border areas. As in all crisis situations, children are the most vulnerable.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0481/Ramoneda 4 April 2011

Pakistan, 2010: Children attend class at a UNICEF-supported tent school, in a camp for people displaced the country’s worst flooding in decades. UNICEF is also providing medical care, immunizations, hygiene kits, safe drinking water, sanitation services and shelter in flood-affected areas.

Still, some 17 million people, 8.6 million of whom are children, remain threatened by malnutrition and waterborne diseases.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1654/Ramoneda 30 August 2010

Greece, 2015: A woman refugee hugs a volunteer upon reaching shore on the island of Lesbos, in the North Aegean region. She is among the nearly 530,000 refugees and migrants who have arrived in Europe by sea in 2015.

Greece remains the largest single entry point by far for refugees and migrants crossing the dangerous Mediterranean Sea to find safe haven in Europe. Since the start of the year, 396,500 people have entered the country by sea –– more than 153,000 of them in September alone.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2559/Gilbertson VII 5 October 2015

Guinea-Bissau, 2008: A girl in Cansate Village, near Bissau. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 2 of the Convention states that children must be treated without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of race, colour, sex, language, religion or other status.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1775/Pirozzi 21 December 2009

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2016: Syrian infant Iliyas receives care from UNICEF-supported nurses at the Tabanovce refugee and migrant centre – where his family has been sheltering for the past 10 months.

Many young refugee and migrant children remain stranded in the Balkans since the closure of borders in March 2016. Worldwide, 28 million children have been uprooted by conflict, driven from their homes by violence and terror.

All of them are in need of support.©UNICEF/UN049079/Georgiev 6 February 2017

Pakistan, 2012: The eighteenth United Nations Climate Change Conference, held 26 November to 7 December in Doha, Qatar, aims to achieve accelerated action to curb the increase in greenhouse gases that is threatening the planet.

The destructive effects of climate change are felt most acutely by the poorest and will be inherited by all the world’s children. A girl walks through flood waters during the third consecutive year in which millions have been displaced by massive flooding in Pakistan.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1318/Zaidi 26 November 2012

Kenya, 2011: A child is vaccinated against measles in the Dadaab refugee camp. In response to the region’s drought crisis, over 400,000 Somalis have sought food and safety in Dadaab, where crowded conditions and poor immunity leave them vulnerable to disease outbreaks.

UNICEF and partners have reached over 300,000 children in mass immunization campaigns in the drought-affected parts of Kenya and Somalia.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1238/Modola 8 August 2011

Bolivia, 2013: A miner pushes an ore-filled rail cart up a slope at the Pailaviri Mine in the city of Potosí, capital of Potosí Department. Despite a low unemployment rate, poverty in the country remains high.

To support their struggling families, some Bolivians have no choice but to work in hazardous jobs – such as mining. Children, too, sometimes work in dangerous conditions in the country’s harshest jobs to help their families survive.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1506/Pirozzi 28 April 2014

The Philippines, 2013: UNICEF and humanitarian partners are supporting continued emergency response in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines on 8 November. The disaster has affected some 9.

8 million people countrywide, including over 659,200 who have been displaced. Ensuring access to food, shelter, medicines, and water, sanitation and hygiene are among immediate priorities in disaster-hit areas, including Tacloban City.

Children there observe the destruction.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0992/Maitem 11 November 2013

Myanmar, 2017: A girl gets water at a well in the Sin Tet Maw displacement camp in Rakhine State, where an estimated 120,000 internally displaced people now live in camps as a result of inter-communal conflict.

Despite Government reform and reconciliation efforts, life remains a struggle for many children in the country. Without strengthened investments to protect all children and ensure their access to basic services, the lives and prospects of those missing out will remain on hold.

©UNICEF/UN061823/Brown 29 May 2017

Mozambique, 2007: (Left-right) Paulino, 7, and Laura, 14, have lived on their own since the death of their parents and three younger siblings several years ago, in Zambézia Province. Though Paulino goes to school, Laura stopped attending classes to care for her sick mother.

She now farms a neighbour’s small plot – a two-hour walk from home – in exchange for food for herself and her brother. She would like to return to school but cannot afford to do so.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2187/LeMoyne 24 March 2014

Around the world, children continue to be caught up in situations that put their very survival at risk. See more Emergencies>

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2015: A boy sits beside a railroad track, on a rainy day in the town of Gevgelija, on the border with Greece. He is among the children, women and men who have fled their homes amid the ongoing refugee and migrant crisis.

Children make up a quarter of all asylum seekers in Europe. In the first half of 2015, 106,000 children had claimed asylum in the European Union, an increase of 74 per cent since 2014.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2164/Georgiev 14 September 2015

Afghanistan, 2009: Boys play in Bamyan Valley. The country remains afflicted by both violent conflict and natural disasters. The United Nations Consolidated Appeal released in December 2010 estimates that 7.

8 million people will require food aid in 2011, one million will require agricultural assistance, and many more will require basic services and protection. Meanwhile, attacks against civilians and aid workers are on the rise.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0984/Noorani 27 December 2010

Madagascar, 2015: UNICEF supported the construction of classrooms, water and sanitation facilities and a sports field, and promotes good hygiene practices, at Lohanosy Primary School, in Analamanga Region.

The school is built on land donated by the community and receives support from the Ministry of Education and the private sector. Education is among social services still regaining public investment as Madagascar emerges from a debilitating political crisis and an ensuing economic decline.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0302/Matas 6 April 2015

Myanmar, 2008: A boy watches an approaching storm in Yangon Division, days after the 3 May cyclone that killed 100,000 people and displaced 1.5 million. Eight months later, relief efforts continue. UNICEF assistance includes school support for 390,000 students, restored access to safe water for over 135,000 people, and delivery kits for 70,000 midwives.

UNICEF also plans to build child-friendly schools that are resistant to cyclones and earthquakes, which can serve as shelters during natural disasters.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0321/Dean 22 December 2008

Uganda, 2017: Francis Katsigazi, with his 4-year-old granddaughter, Blessed, 1 of his 10 grandchildren, feeds a pig in a pen at their home, in Kabale District. Nurturing, responsive and stimulating interaction between young children and their parents and caregivers positively and permanently strengthens a child’s ability to learn.

“It’s important because children can learn and develop themselves to give them [sic] a better future,” Mr. Katsigazi said.©UNICEF/UN065035/Ose 12 June 2017

Haiti, 2010: Five years ago, just weeks after the 12 January earthquake destroyed her home, this baby girl lay in a basin while her mother, a single parent with two other children, washed laundry nearby, in Cité Soleil, one of Port-au-Prince’s poorest neighbourhoods.

The earthquake – the single largest catastrophe Haiti has endured in centuries – claimed more than 220,000 lives and wreaked havoc on already fragile infrastructure, deepening inequities for the most vulnerable children.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0225/Noorani 5 January 2015

Libya, 2017: A young migrant implores from a cell in a detention centre. Refugee and migrant children and women routinely experience sexual violence, exploitation, abuse and detention along the Central Mediterranean migration route from North Africa to Italy.

The route is one of the most dangerous – where vulnerable migrants and refugees seeking a better life are preyed on by smugglers and others. Over 700 children died last year crossing the Mediterranean between Libya and Italy.

©UNICEF/UN052608/Romenzi 20 February 2017

Bolivia, 2012: Jesmine Balboa Mendoza, 8, who is blind, lives at Hogar de Esperanza, a residential care centre in Santa Cruz. The home provides shelter, education, healthcare and other support to vulnerable children.

Article 23 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes the rights of children with disabilities to special care and a full and decent life in conditions that ensure their dignity.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2052/Rudovsky 25 March 2012

Sudan, 2005: Girls leave a displacement camp to gather firewood, near the city of El Fasher in the Darfur Region, where ongoing conflict has displaced some 2 million people. The trip takes several hours, and girls young as eight have been raped or killed.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-0943/Haviv 6 October 2008

Malawi, 2009: Children dance at a school AIDS club meeting in Lilongwe, the capital. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009. The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child.

Article 12 of the Convention recognizes the right of all children to expression in all matters that affect them.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1909/Pirozzi 28 June 2010

Guinea-Bissau, 2012: The Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes “that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding.

” UNICEF supports initiatives worldwide that help families provide optimum care for their children. A family in Quinara Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2151/LeMoyne 22 April 2013

Colombia, 2004: Mayra Alejandra Hernandez, 9, learns to swim during a retreat for disabled children run by the NGO Colombian Integral Rehabilitation Centre. Mayra lost one leg and severely injured the other when a bomb exploded in a nearby house.

She is now learning to walk with a prosthesis. Colombia continues to suffer from a 40-year-old conflict, declining social services and a rampant drug trade.©UNICEF/NYHQ2004-0794/DeCesare 14 September 2009

Pakistan, 2011: A man and his daughter cross an expanse of flood water in Digri, Sindh Province. More than 5 million people have been affected by monsoon rains and flooding. The crisis comes one year after the country’s 2010 monsoon-related disaster, flooding that affected 18 million people and covered much of the country in water.

UNICEF is working with the Government and other United Nations agencies and partners to supply safe drinking water, medicines, vaccines and other critical relief.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1389/Page 19 September 2011

Nigeria, 2007: Girls attend class at UNICEF-supported Waziri Mazadu Primary School in the town of Dass, in the northern state of Bauchi. The country has made tremendous gains in girls’ education over the years, but barriers remain.

In 2014, UNICEF-supported programmes to eliminate gender disparity and other barriers to education continue to further improve girls’ quality of life.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0515/Nesbitt 12 May 2014

Sri Lanka, 2007: People take shelter in the ruins of a mosque in Mannar District, during the country’s two-decade-long civil war. The conflict finally ended in May 2009. Recovery remains a tenuous process, with over 100,000 people still living in overcrowded displacement camps, and insufficient basic services in place for those being resettled.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2618/Haviv 8 February 2010

Guatemala, 2017: (Centre) 15-month-old Danilo in Guatemala City, who was born with a brain abnormality, gets the love, attention and support he needs – from his brothers (pictured), parents, extended family and community – in a stimulating environment.

On 3 December 2017, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities, UNICEF launched its ‘1000 Days of Love’ campaign promoting the rights of all children with a disability, especially those under the age of 3.

©UNICEF/UN0148747/Volpe 4 December 2017

Libya, 2015: Addis and his 30-month-old son, Lato, from Eritrea, in a cell at the Alguaiha detention centre in the north-western coastal town of Garabulli, were apprehended while making the dangerous journey to reach Europe.

Children make up half of the population of refugees and migrants on the move. Helping them is a key shared responsibility, and includes finding alternatives to their detention – which can cause them severe and lasting harm.

©UNICEF/UNI187398/Romenzi 6 September 2016

Côte d’Ivoire, 2017: Mothers wait outside a maternity health center with their babies, where they will receive vaccinations to protect them from yellow fever and other diseases. Nearly one billion people will be vaccinated against yellow fever in 27 high-risk African countries by 2026 with support from the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi – the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF and more than 50 health partners, in an effort to end devastating epidemics that periodically impact Africa.

©UNICEF/UN061403/Dejongh 16 April 2018

Mongolia, 2018: Delgermurun Tsolomon with her 8 day-old baby, Sugarmaa, and her family outside their ‘ger’ (nomadic tent) in the Alag-Erdene area. Sugarmaa weighed just 3.8 kg at birth. Thanks to midwife care and the services from a local health centre, she is thriving.

Every year, 2.6 million newborns die – 1 million of them do not survive their first day. Ending preventable newborn deaths through clean, functional health facilities within the reach of every mother and baby.

©UNICEF/UN0188831/Njiokiktjien VII Photo 23 July 2018

Ukraine, 2005: Children’s health in Ukraine has improved significantly, including through reduced infant mortality and high immunization coverage. But, rising costs of medical services countrywide as well as a waning number of rural medical institutions have widened disparities in health care along economic and geographical lines.

Ruslan, 7, at a UNICEF-assisted clinic, in the city of Kharkiv.©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-1800/Pirozzi 9 April 2012

Ukraine, 2015: Valentina Nikolaeva, part of a UNICEF-supported mobile team of volunteer psychologists, leads a group therapy session at the only operating kindergarten in the conflict-affected city of Debaltseve, Donetsk Oblast (province).

“When we first saw the children in March, they had visible signs of trauma,” she recalled. “They did not touch others, and they did not want to be touched. They were scared when they heard loud noises.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1444/Filippov 8 June 2015

Republic of the Congo, 2009: The majority of indigenous Baka – semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers – live in and around the forest that composes most of Likouala Province. Amid other widespread discrimination, the destruction of large parts of their natural habitat from actions such as logging and poaching threatens their way of life.

UNICEF is working with the government to promote the rights of indigenous children. Baka women at a market in Impfondo, the provincial capital.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2530/Williams 29 July 2013

Sierra Leone, 2015: “When I was released from the treatment center I was told that my parents had gone to America, but later my uncle admitted to me that they had died from Ebola,” said Ebola survivor Isata Mansaray, 10, “But I don’t feel too sad now because my grandmother is looking after me ….

I want to be a bank manager so I can take care of my family, especially my grandma.”©UNICEF/UNI200684/Grile 18 January 2016

United Nations Headquarters, 1989: On 20 November, Under-Secretary-General for Human Rights Jan Martenson, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Audrey Hepburn and UNICEF Executive-Director James Grant celebrate UN General Assembly adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).

The CRC, the first legally binding code of child rights, turns 25 in 2014. Its four guiding principles are non-discrimination, best interest of the child, survival and development, and respect for the views of the child.

©UNICEF/NYHQ1989-0746/Isaac 17 November 2014

Pakistan, 2010: Children cook near a camp for people displaced by flooding in Sindh Province. The camp is full and cannot accommodate their family with a tent. Over 17 million people have been affected by the country’s worst flooding in living memory.

Millions are in urgent need of shelter, food, clean water and medical aid. The United Nations requires US$460 million for emergency operations, including US$111 million for UNICEF programmes.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1636/Ramoneda 23 August 2010

Watch a presentation that celebrates and reflects on the role of photography in advocating for children’s rights.

Bangladesh, 2018: Nurul Haque and his daughter Munni Akter, 13, live on Kutubdia Island, where rising sea water has engulfed his farm – leaving him with few financial options. He is considering pulling Munni out of school to marry her off.

“I don’t really want to … it’s not good for girls,” he says. Strong public messaging about the harmful practice, increased rates of girls’ education and government investments in girls have helped prevent 25 million child marriages in the last decade.

©UNICEF/UN0159775/Nybo 5 March 2018

Egypt, 2011: On 1 February, a girl participates in a demonstration in Cairo, part of a wave of mass protests demanding political change in the Middle East and North Africa. Many demonstrators are young people, including children, and many are using online and mobile phone networks to mobilize.

UNICEF reminds the world of children’s rights, including the right to participate in actions affecting them and to be protected from all forms of violence.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0223/LeMoyne 07 March 2011

Viet Nam 2016: Sung Thi Binh, 10, and her brother are getting a quality education thanks to a UNICEF-supported programme in their province. On the 70th anniversary of its founding, UNICEF – created in December 1946 to help children in the aftermath of WWII – celebrates the immense progress made for the world’s children, and renews the urgent call to reach the millions of children today whose lives and futures are endangered by conflict, crises, poverty, inequality and discrimination.

©UNICEF/UN044166/Lister 12 December 2016

Syrian Arab Republic, 2014: The Bab Al Salame displacement camp. The Syrian crisis is exacting its greatest toll on children. Millions are out of school, and all children – whether in the Syrian Arab Republic or taking refuge abroad – face significant threats to their psychosocial health and desperately require protection.

Launched last week, the No Lost Generation campaign calls for critical support in these key areas to empower children to reclaim agency over their lives – and futures.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0001/Diffidenti 13 January 2014

Afghanistan, 2010: (Background) Seeba cries, worried for the health of her newborn, who is held by another inmate in the Kabul Female Prison and Detention Center. Seeba is serving a five-year sentence for allegedly having an affair.

Over half of the Center’s inmates were detained for ‘moral crimes’, including running away. Afghan girls and women continue to face entrenched gender discrimination, forced marriage and domestic abuse.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1890/Brooks 19 December 2011

The Rights of Children’ photography book marks 20 years of child rights

Uganda, 2010: Boys peer through a window in their home in Busoru III Village, a former displacement camp. Children in Uganda continue to face persistent poverty and high rates of infant and child mortality.

Despite reducing child mortality rates by 27 per cent since 1990, Uganda will not achieve Millennium Development Goal 4, the goal to reduce by two-thirds the deaths of children under age five.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1463/Noorani 15 November 2010

Iraq, 2014: A health worker administers a dose of oral polio vaccine to a displaced Yazidi boy, in Bajeed Kandala camp. The Ministry of Health, with the support of UNICEF and the World Health Organization, has just concluded a campaign aiming to reach over 4 million children under age 5 with polio immunizations.

Polio re-emerged in Iraq earlier this year, and the ongoing conflict leaves children increasingly vulnerable to the crippling disease.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1114/Khuzaie 18 August 2014

Haiti, 2010: A girl washes her face after sleeping on a street in Port-au-Prince, the capital. She is one of 1.2 million people who were left homeless by the 12 January earthquake. At a conference of international donors at UN Headquarters on 31 March, representatives from over 150 countries and international organizations pledged US $5.

3 billion for Haiti’s recovery, making a total of US $9.9 billion pledged for delivery over the next three years.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0391/LeMoyne 5 April 2010

Ukraine, 2014: Because of the ongoing conflict, Anya, 8, fled her hometown of Bryanka in July 2014 and now lives in an accommodation centre in Kyiv. Her mother, brother and sister, who were unable to get out, remained behind.

“I was very scared. They were shooting and bombing,” she said. “This is why mom sent me here, but I miss my sister and brother. They are much younger than me. I must protect them.” The centre is hosting some 40 displaced children from conflict-affected areas.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1896/Krepkih 27 October 2014

Yemen, 2017: Patients with severe diarrhoea or cholera receive treatment at Sab’een Hospital in Sana’a, the capital. Over 1,000 children suffering from acute watery diarrhoea have been reporting to health facilities every day.

Health workers are racing to save children, who are the most vulnerable, as the number of suspected cholera cases soars in the war-ravaged country – where the weakened health system is overwhelmed by the scale of the cholera emergency.

©UNICEF/UN065872/Alzekri 5 June 2017

Bangladesh, 2006: Roki, 11, sits in an inn where he sells tea, in the town of Ajmeriganj. He dropped out of school after the fourth grade to help his widowed mother make ends meet. “I have to work,” he said.

“My mother is getting old and gets tired. I have to help her.” His mother works as a day labourer to support her four children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2731/Noorani 17 January 2011

South Sudan, 2014: (Background, centre) UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake and, to his right, Executive Director of the World Food Programme Ertharin Cousin visited South Sudan to draw attention to the looming nutrition crisis in the country, where resurgent conflict has raised pre-existent emergency levels of undernutrition among children to grave heights.

Without immediate intervention, it is estimated that 50,000 children could die from malnutrition by the end of the year.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0985/Campeanu 28 July 2014

Philippines, 2011: Children on the island of Mindanao. Play is an essential and fun part of child development. It promotes healthy activity and exercise, fosters social skills and improves critical thinking.

It is also a basic right – recognized in Article 31 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the world’s most endorsed human rights treaty. UNICEF works worldwide to protect these rights for all children, including the most marginalized.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2388/Pirozzi 5 November 2012

Somalia, 2017: Amina Dahir holds up an empty cooking pot as she crouches alongside her daughter in their makeshift home at a settlement near the town of Ainabo. Some 22 million children have been left hungry, sick, displaced and out of school in Somalia, South Sudan, northeast Nigeria and Yemen as drought and armed conflict devastate lives.

UNICEF is working with partners in the four countries to respond to the famine threat and prevent it from spreading.©UNICEF/UN056039/Holt 3 April 2017

Indonesia, 2007: A boy (right) accused of stealing a motorbike sits inside a child-friendly court in Banda Aceh. The boy, who was orphaned by the December 2004 tsunami, was sentenced to community service and ordered to apologize to the bike’s owner.

UNICEF helped build the courtroom, which has darkened windows and is closed to the public to protect the privacy of families. It is one of many child-protection initiatives implemented during post-tsunami recovery.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1866/Estey 13 July 2009

The Niger, 2017: Fifth-grader Aicha Gabtchami, 12, whose family has been displaced by Boko Haram violence, speaks with UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Orlando Bloom in a temporary learning space during his visit to the Ngagam camp.

An estimated 1.3 million children across the Lake Chad Basin, including in the Niger, have been uprooted by the violence throughout the region. Many of these children have lost their families and homes and have missed out on years of education.

©UNICEF/UN053249/Tremeau 6 March 2017

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2003: Sex workers, aged 17 and 19, walk hand-in-hand in Goma. They work to support themselves and their children. From 25-28 November in Brazil, the Third World Congress Against the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents will promote legal frameworks to protect children from sexual exploitation.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2003-0299/Nesbitt 24 November 2008

UNICEF Photography promotes the appropriate use of images of children in all media. The accurate and respectful visual representation of children everywhere is part of defending children’s rights, including their rights to expression, privacy and protection. Recognizing that children are frequently at risk of abuse, discrimination, stigma or other exploitation if their name or visual identity is known, UNICEF promotes international photography norms that protect children’s identities – in both the making and the use of images of children – as needed.

Iraq, 2013: Every minute eight people flee their homes to escape conflict, persecution or natural disaster. Annually on 20 June, World Refugee Day draws attention to the struggles of over 43.7 million refugees and displaced people around the globe.

In Iraq’s Domiz camp, Syrian children and women register for food rations. The ongoing war in Syria has sent over 1.4 million refugees outside the country. Of them, over 150,000 are now in Iraq – a threefold increase since November 2012.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0217/Abdulmunem 17 June 2013

Rwanda, 2015: (Foreground) Birnise Iradukunda, 4, who is from Burundi, drinks porridge with supplemental nutrients to treat her malnutrition, in Mahama refugee camp, in Rwanda’s Eastern Province. Civil unrest has erupted in Burundi amid the approach of a tense presidential election, to be held in June.

Over 112,400 Burundian refugees have fled to neighbouring countries, including Rwanda, where more than 26,700 of the refugees are staying, as of 18 May.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1379/Pflanz 26 May 2015

Libya, 2011: In June, adolescent boys swam in the coastal waters of rebel-occupied Benghazi, waiting for the civil war to end. Since the defeat of the former Government’s forces, UNICEF has been supporting initiatives to restore access to safe water and schools, to warn children about mines and other unexploded ordinance and to provide psychosocial support for children recovering from war-related trauma.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0960/Ramoneda 28 November 2011

South Sudan, 2014: Small-leaved succulent plants like the ones Nyabel Wal holds grow close to the ground all around the town of Kiech Kon. “Since January, we have been living without food, except for the wild grass,” she says of her family of five.

One of her children is suffering from severe acute malnutrition. UNICEF, the World Food Programme and partners have deployed rapid response aid, including nutrition support, to the town, but needs remain urgent there – and countrywide.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1360/Pflanz 8 September 2014

Germany, 2107: Eight-year-old twins Jannat and Amr Raslan and their brother Karam, 5 (in blue and grey), play near the emergency reception centre where they now shelter, in Berlin, the capital. Their family, from the destroyed Syrian city of Homs, has lived in three different refugee centres since they arrived in Berlin in December 2015.

Despite still facing an uncertain future, the Raslans and their children – who are all now in school – continue to integrate into their new society.©UNICEF/UN0126196/Gilbertson VII Photo 20 November 2017

Jordan, 2012: Tent shelters in the Za’atari camp for Syrian refugees on the outskirts of Mafraq. Syria’s war is entering its second year, with no end to the conflict in sight. Over 1 million Syrians have fled to nearby countries, while inside Syria, some 4 million people – 1.

8 million of them children – remain affected. Up to 70,000 people, mostly civilians, have been killed.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1730/Malkawi 11 March 2013

Ghana, 2008: Girls chat in front of a mural that promotes HIV/AIDS awareness at their primary school in the town of Tarikpaa. On 30 November 2009, UNICEF and its partners launched ‘Children and AIDS: The Fourth Stocktaking Report, 2009’.

Although significant progress has been made in promoting HIV care and treatment, the world is not yet on track to meet targets for preventing the disease.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0866/Asselin 7 December 2009

India, 2006: Anita, who is eight months pregnant, stands with her family in their courtyard in Rajasthan State. In India, maternal health remains perilous, a reflection of continued discrimination against women.

As a result, India’s infant mortality rate is also high, at 56 per 1,000 live births, with almost half of infant deaths occurring in the first week of life. UNICEF supports community outreach and education programs on maternal health issues, and provides access to ante- and postnatal care.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2806/Khemka 2 November 2009

Iraq 2016: Janna, 8, received her new UNICEF school bag as part of an educational-supply distribution at five schools in Baghdad’s Al-Amiriyah District. In the past year, UNICEF has facilitated the distribution of learning materials to more than 346,000 children across the country – where conflict, violence and displacement have devastated the education system.

Nearly one school in five is unusable due to the ongoing conflict, and thousands of those that are open are overburdened.©UNICEF/UN08244/Khuzaie 1 February 2016

Germany, 2015: A woman carries a child past tents at the refugee shelter at the Templehof Airfield in Berlin. The airfield was used during Berlin Airlift in 1948 and now provides temporary housing for 2,000 refugees.

More than 300,000 refugee and migrant children have entered Germany this year, and the sheer scale of the crisis has strained capacity, leaving children at risk. UNICEF and the Government of Germany announced a new partnership aimed at improving their care and protection.

©UNICEF/UN04021/GilbertsonVII 21 December 2015

Yemen, 2018: A prematurely born infant receives treatment at the Alsabeen Hospital in Sana’a. More than 3 million children have been born since violence ravaging the country escalated in 2015 and 11 million children rely on humanitarian support to survive.

Decades of under development, economic decline, and frequent bursts of conflict and the destruction of fragile public infrastructure and services mean children face huge challenges in their physical, cognitive and social development.

©UNICEF/UN0156166/Fuad 22 January 2018

Afghanistan, 2010: A girl holds her malnourished nephew at a UNICEF-supported therapeutic feeding unit in Mirwais Hospital, in Kandahar. The unit treats some 300 malnourished children each year, many of them arriving from surrounding provinces.

Access to basic health care is diminished by ongoing conflict in the region, including attacks on health centres and aid workers by armed groups.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0807/Holt 24 May 2010

Ethiopia, 2009: Each year, some 3 million girls are subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). Despite being illegal in many countries, the practice continues due to cultural pressures and, at times, is even performed by trained health providers.

But, FGM poses life-threatening dangers to girls’ health and leaves emotional wounds that often last a lifetime. We must stand together to end the practice. Photographs of girls not subjected to FGM, in Afar Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2257/Holt 9 February 2015

South Sudan, 2015: Ongoing conflict disrupted – but has not deterred – the country’s education efforts for its estimated 400,000 out-of-school children. “I never miss a day of school” reads a schoolgirl’s banner as testament during the state launch of the UNICEF-supported Back to Learning initiative in Yambio County, Western Equatoria State, on 3 June.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1513/McIlwaine 15 June 2015

Benin, 2016: “I cannot abandon my patients, my colleagues, my friends. I’m not afraid to come in contact with patients because we’ve been given protective gear and decontamination equipment,” emergency-care doctor Jacques Kotchoffa says confidently, putting on his gear to check on patients with Lassa Fever in the isolation ward at Papané Hospital.

“Life will resume, as it has in places that fire has turned into desert but are now flourishing with life again. I’m very hopeful.”©UNICEF/UN014694/Bonnaud 11 April 2016

Syrian Arab Republic, 2015: (Left) Esraa, 4, and her brother, Waleed, 3, near a shelter for internally displaced persons, in the city of Aleppo. An estimated 3.7 million Syrian children, or 1 in 3, have been born into a life shaped by violence, fear and displacement since the start of the conflict in their homeland – which has now hit the five-year mark.

Some 8.4 million children – either in the country or living as refugees in neighbouring countries – are now affected.©UNICEF/UN013172/Al-Issa 14 March 2016

Haiti, 2016: Collapsed homes seen below a toddler resting at a dwelling on a hilltop attest to the massive damage and destruction caused by Hurricane Matthew in the city of Jérémie in Grand-Anse Department, one of the areas hardest hit by the Category 4 storm.

Hundreds of schools across the country have also been damaged or destroyed or are now serving as temporary shelter in the aftermath of the disaster – disrupting education and learning for more than 106,000 children.

©UNICEF/UN035311/LeMoyne 17 October 2016

India, 2017: A mother holds her twin son and daughter closely against her chest, in the Kangaroo Mother Care Ward at the Government Hospital in Nalgonda District, in Telangana State. Early and regular skin-to-skin contact between a mother and baby, using proven practices like Kangaroo Mother Care, helps improve newborns’ chances of survival.

Given that the majority of newborn deaths are preventable, every mother and every baby deserve access to affordable, quality health care.©UNICEF/UN0135368/Selaam 19 February 2018

Jordan, 2015: This family of six, members of the Bedouin ethnic group, move from place to place in the desert, following access to water and food for their 700 sheep. They use 8,000 litres of water daily – 200 litres for cooking, drinking and washing clothes and dishes, and 7,800 litres for their herd.

“Water is cheap when it’s available,” said Um Ibrahim (second from left), “but when it’s missed, it’s the most valuable thing.”©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1884/GilbertsonVII 31 August 2015

China, 2006: UNICEF’s partnership with China – the organization’s first Asian assistance effort – began in 1947. Full country programme cooperation began in 1979, yielding significant gains for China’s children.

Today, joint initiatives focus on children affected by HIV/AIDS; preventing child trafficking; expanding early childhood development services; and improving school quality. Boys in Gyantse, Tibet Autonomous Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-1035/Mohan 7 May 2012

Burundi, 2012: A UNICEF-supported project at a site outside Bujumbura, the capital, uses sport to educate vulnerable displaced children. Sport is a powerful tool to help improve the lives of children, families and communities.

Sport creates safe environments where children can play, express themselves and learn; helps educate children and their parents about social issues and rights; and provides valuable psychosocial support in times of difficulty.

©UNICEF/BRDA2012-00002/Krzysiek 9 June 2014

Yemen, 2010: An 8-year-old Nigerian boy stands with other prisoners, in the port city of Hodeidah. He was arrested for illegal entry into Yemen. After three months, UNICEF and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees advocated his release, and he has since returned to Nigeria.

On 10 December, Human Rights Day commemorated the sixty-third anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which includes “the right to life, liberty and security of person.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2854/Stirton 12 December 2011

Chad, 2010: A boy covers his face in a rehabilitation centre for former child soldiers. UNICEF has released updated guidelines for local and international media reporting on children’s issues. To protect children at risk of being further endangered or stigmatized, UNICEF promotes protection of both their names and visual identities in all reporting on their conditions.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1152/Asselin 9 August 2010

Iraq, 2016: Mohammed, 14, a Syrian refugee, works full-time in an industrial area in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to help support his family. A significant number of children in the country are highly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, including child labour.

“What I would most like is to leave this job and go back to school. I miss my school in Syria,” Mohammad said. He and his five siblings have been out of school since their family fled violence in their homeland three years ago.

©UNICEF/UN020133/Yar 13 June 2016

Burkina Faso, 2014: More than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is concentrated. However, overall support for FGM/C is declining.

In most of the practising countries, including Burkina Faso, the majority of girls and women think it should end. Odette [NAME CHANGED], in a Ouagadougou clinic, has undergone reconstructive surgery to repair the damage caused by FGM/C at age 6.

©UNICEF/UNI163743/Nesbitt 21 July 2014

Iraq, 2014: Syrian boys in Domiz refugee camp, in the northern Dohuk Governorate. Over 2.8 million people have now fled the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, seeking refuge in nearby Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.

Many of these refugees continue to face inadequate access to basic services, such as education, health care, water and sanitation – a risk that is even greater for the 85 per cent of Syrian refugees living outside formal camps.

©UNICEF/UKLA2014-04933/Schermbrucker 23 June 2014

Zimbabwe, 2017: [NAME CHANGED] 12-year-old Paonei (left) tells her story of sexual violence to UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Priyanka Chopra at the Childline drop-in centre in Epworth. Childline, the country’s 24-hour service for children who have been abused, violated or exploited, provides medical assistance, free counselling and other support.

“When I met these survivors – young, brave women and children – and listened to their experiences, it just broke my heart,” Ms. Chopra said.©UNICEF/UN062522/Prinsloo 8 May 2017

Italy, 2017: Badiaa (centre) plays with Syrian and Italian friends outside her new home in Trento. Badiaa and her family arrived from Lebanon through a humanitarian corridor that helped 93 Syrian refugees reach Italy safely in February 2016.

Without safe and legal pathways, children’s journeys are rife with risk and exploitation, making them vulnerable to violence and abuse, and to being preyed upon by smugglers and even enslaved by traffickers.

©UNICEF/UN069357/Romenzi 3 July 2017

Somalia, 2009: People take shade in a displacement camp in Galguduud Region. By March 2010, thousands of people in Galguduud had been displaced by a prolonged drought and severe water shortage. Two years without rain have dried wells and aggravated malnutrition rates in the region.

Throughout the country, one in five children is acutely malnourished and over three million people remain in need of urgent humanitarian aid due to both drought and persistent conflict.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0637/Kamber 31 May 2010

Kenya, 2011: Somali children and women refugees await food and other assistance at a camp near the town of Dadaab. They are among more than 10 million people in five Horn of Africa countries affected by the worst drought in 60 years.

An estimated 480,000 malnourished children are at risk of dying, and an additional 1.6 million children are at risk. UNICEF urgently needs US $31.8 million to support response programmes in four of the most affected countries for the next three months.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0995/Holt 11 July 2011

Yugoslavia, c. 1950: Muslim girls stand barefoot in the village of Donja Jablanica, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Founded in 1946, UNICEF assisted Yugoslav children in the aftermath of World War II and continues to help war-affected children.

Since 1989, this work has been guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which marked its 22nd anniversary on 20 November 2011.©UNICEF/NYHQ1950-0008 21 November 2011

Sierra Leone, 2010: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Lionel ‘Leo’ Messi is marking his son’s first birthday (2 November) by promoting child survival. The Leo & Thiago Messi Celebrate Life campaign asks friends and fans worldwide to help raise awareness about the importance of giving all children an equal chance to survive.

Despite sharp reductions in child deaths since 1990, 18,000 children under 5 still die each day from mainly preventable causes. One-year-old Nuah Conteh is malnourished and has malaria.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1023/Asselin 28 October 2013

Iraq, 2016: Sabrin, 15, in the Baherka camp in Erbil Governorate, is a third-generation Palestinian refugee who was born in the country. For Taha, her mother, Baherka is the sixth stop in a life of continual displacement.

Sabrin’s parents have no money; cannot leave the camp to find work because they have no passports or residence permits; and fear that because Sabrin and her sister are not citizens, the girls’ studies will be in vain if their rights continue to be curtailed.

©UNICEF/UN046564/Khuzaie 26 December 2016

Lebanon, 2013: Amid extreme volatility in Syria, over 1.2 million people have fled to nearby countries. Among them, Lebanon is currently hosting over 343,800 registered refugees. Ongoing UNICEF support includes psychosocial assistance and safe spaces for children to play.

But the violence – persistent now for over two years – threatens to scar an entire generation of young Syrians. A boy refugee near his family’s temporary home in the Bekaa Valley.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0048/Ramoneda 6 May 2013

Pakistan 2017: District Health Communication Officer Bushra checks for ink marks on children in a high-risk transient population in Rawalpindi District to confirm that they have been immunized against polio.

This year, there have been just 12 cases of wild poliovirus in two countries (7 in Afghanistan and 5 in Pakistan) – the lowest number of cases in history. As long as polio exists anywhere, it is a threat to children everywhere.

©UNICEF/UN0139381/Niaz 23 October 2017

2015: People from Bolivia, India, Jordan, Malawi, Myanmar, the Niger and the United States of America hold glasses of water. For millions of people around the globe, water, sanitation and hygiene conditions have improved.

Still, in 2015, 663 million people are using unsafe drinking water. As World Water Week 2015 – held from 23 to 28 August – draws attention to the world’s most pressing water-related challenges, join the conversation by telling us what #wateris to you.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1971/GilbertsonVII 24 August 2015

Pakistan, 2006: Boys work in a carpet factory in Quetta City, Balochistan. UNICEF currently estimates that 150 million children between the ages of five and 14 are engaged in labour of some sort. Although child labour is in decline globally, the economic crisis has forced many children into work earlier and in more hazardous roles.

UNICEF is working with governments around the world to end the worst forms of child exploitation and to create social protections for all children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-0352/Pirozzi 9 May 2011

Lebanon, 2016: Syrian refugee Malek Hawandi, 12, attends a remedial class for children who have been out of education at a school in the Bekaa Valley. Close to 200,000 Syrian refugee children are out of school in Lebanon.

Pervasive levels of poverty, protracted conflicts and complex humanitarian emergencies mean 123 million children are missing out on school. More investment is required to address the reasons that keep vulnerable children out of school.

©UNICEF/UN077037/Albertalli 5 September 2017

Afghanistan, 2009: A girl sits near a baby donkey in Bamyan Province. Children often have a special relationship with animals and their natural environment. In Afghanistan, donkeys are often the only source of transportation in rural communities.

They are also used by UNICEF and partners to deliver vaccines, school supplies, emergency relief and other aid to hard-to-reach parts of the country.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0983/Noorani 6 September 2010

Somalia, 2009: Militia members cast shadows against a wall in central Somalia. They have been hired by the local government to provide security. Drought and armed conflict have displaced 1.2 million people, contributing to a nutrition crisis that leaves one in six children under the age of five acutely malnourished.

UNICEF and partners provide nutritional support to over 100,000 children per month.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0648/Kamber 3 August 2009

Côte d’Ivoire, 2012: World Water Week, from 26–31 August this year, focuses on global water issues and is held annually by Sweden’s Stockholm International Water Institute. Supported by UN agencies, the 2012 event seeks improved collaboration – at local, national and global levels – to address the future of food security in a world where water resources are decreasing.

A water pump in Zanzan Region, where over 30 per cent of the population lacks access to safe water.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2481/Asselin 20 August 2012

Serbia, 2015: Women and small children get warm at a stove in a UNICEF child-friendly space in the border town of Preševo. Harsh winter weather is compounding the hardships for refugees and migrants on the move.

As cold, rain and snow arrive across Europe, they face increasingly difficult conditions, including a heightened risk of dying at sea or on land, or becoming seriously ill from hypothermia or pneumonia.

Children are among those most at risk.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-3137/GilbertsonVII 14 December 2015

State of Palestine, 2017: Mohammed Rahab, 14, who joined the circus eight months ago, is among adolescents using their skills and creativity to succeed in the Gaza Strip, despite staggering youth unemployment and other difficulties.

Many of the adolescents are striving to find innovative solutions to problems in their communities and to contribute meaningfully to their society. “I also feel that I take part … [in] the society in a different way now,” Mohammed said.

©UNICEF/UN0157638/d’Aki 5 February 2018

Uganda, 2007: Uganda’s northern districts continue to recover from two decades of armed conflict. Some 2 million people were displaced, and vital infrastructure was destroyed. In the area of education, UNICEF supports government efforts to enrol all eligible children.

An abandoned school desk in a camp for people displaced by conflict, in the northern Gulu District.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2411/LeMoyne 26 March 2012

Timor-Leste, 2012: A new UNICEF report affirms that poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of life often leads to stunting – low height for one’s age – and causes irreversible developmental damage.

Stunting also leaves children more prone to illness, less likely to finish school and less able to reach their full adult potential. Globally, nearly one in four children under age 5 are stunted. A healthy infant in Mate Restu Village.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1508/Alcock 15 April 2013

Serbia, 2015: Munir Yousufi, 16, travelling alone from Afghanistan, gets help shaving, in a park in downtown Belgrade. Munir lost partial use of the left side of his body when the Taliban destroyed his home while his family was in it.

He has been stuck in Belgrade and living in a tent in the park since he ran out of the money his family collected to send him to safety. One in every four asylum seekers in Europe so far this year has been a child.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2732/GilbertsonVII 19 October 2015

Zambia, 2008: Natasha Simpasa, who is HIV-positive, breastfeeds her infant son, Fanwick, outside their home in Lusaka. Although there is some risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding, UNICEF recommends that HIV-infected women breastfeed their infants for the first six months of life unless baby formula is affordable, sustainable and safe.

Ms. Simpasa participates in a programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0284/Nesbitt 6 July 2009

State of Palestine, 2013: (Centre) Mohammed [NAME CHANGED], 17, has worked in underground tunnels to help support his family since he was 14. The passageways are used to smuggle goods across the Gaza Strip’s severely restricted border with Egypt.

“The first time I arrived at the tunnel, I freaked out. … the tunnel looked like a tomb,” said Mohammed, who has since survived a tunnel collapse. He earns up to 120 shekels (about US$30) per shift, significantly more than he might earn at other jobs.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0874/Baba 24 June 2013

Pakistan, 2009: Girls attend the first day of class in Swat District. The school had been closed due to conflict in the area. The Convention on the Rights of the Child celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009.

It is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child. Articles 28 and 29 of the Convention recognize the right of the child to an education that develops the child’s “talents and mental and physical abilities,” and that prepares the child “for responsible life in a free society.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1271/Ramoneda 26 July 2010

Kenya, 2008: Five-month-old Ekeno Echoda from the Turkana ethnic group is being evaluated after treatment for severe malnutrition, in Rift Valley Province. His mother abandoned him two days after his birth, and he is now in the care of his grandmother.

Food insecurity increased during post-election violence in 2007, and continues to threaten those who remain displaced. UNICEF and partners, including the European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office, support programmes to improve child nutrition in the region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1455/Bonn 6 April 2009

Papua New Guinea, 2018: Young earthquake survivors play and talk with counsellors at a UNICEF-supported child friendly space in hard-hit Mendi. Children under age 5 visiting the safe space are using puppets to express their trauma, loss, fear and confusion and deal with family separation and disruption to their lives following a series of devastating earthquakes in the Highlands region.

About 125,000 children urgently need assistance.©UNICEF/UN0188834/Nybo 9 April 2018

Samoa, 2009: A girl watches a New Zealand Air Force helicopter take off after delivering relief workers and supplies, in response to the 29 September tsunami that killed over 140 people. Millions of people in the Asia-Pacific Region remain vulnerable to natural disasters, including tsunamis, typhoons and earthquakes.

These vulnerabilities are exacerbated by widespread poverty and global climate change.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2037/Nguyen 15 March 2010

Sudan, 2011: Boys stand in a camp for returnees in the contested area of Abyei. Abyei straddles territory between Southern Sudan, which is preparing to gain independence on 9 July, and northern Sudan. Conflict erupted in May, and by mid-June, nearly 113,000 people had been displaced from the area.

UNICEF and partners are attempting to provide large-scale humanitarian relief to affected children and families.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0456/deViguerie 27 June 2011

Liberia, 2014: Outreach workers speak with farmers about Ebola, its symptoms and how to prevent its spread, in Lofa County. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the worst in history, and prevention is the only way towards curbing its spread.

Some 4.5 million children under age 5 live in affected areas, where they are seeing the disease sicken their loved ones and disrupt basic services, such as healthcare and education.©UNICEF/UNI167521/Jallanzo 15 September 2014

Nigeria, 2010: Ongoing UNICEF support in Nigeria includes programmes to create safe water sources and sanitary facilities and to promote best hygiene practices. But much remains to be done. Some 42 per cent of Nigerians lack access to safe drinking water, and only 31 per cent use improved sanitation facilities.

Boys play at a bank of a river in the Ajere Beach community, which has adopted healthy hygiene behaviours and been declared free of open defecation.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1743/Eseibo 7 October 2013

Haiti, 2011: Miscillite holds her malnourished daughter, Jeanne-Baptiste, outside their makeshift shelter in Port-au-Prince. They live in a camp for people displaced by the January 2010 earthquake. Miscillite, who has four children and is pregnant, struggles to feed her family.

Jeanne-Baptiste receives therapeutic food at a nearby UNICEF-supported community clinic.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0046/Dormino 21 February 2011

Kyrgyzstan, 2010: Boys stand in the ruins of their home near the Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan border, where at least 356 people were killed and an estimated 2,000 houses destroyed during ethnic violence in June.

Despite the United Nations appeal for US$96.4 million for recovery and other humanitarian assistance, including US$14.7 million for UNICEF operations, the situation remains unstable and only 42 per cent of requested funds have been covered.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1241/Volpe 27 September 2010

India, 2016: Children from slums use a mobile phone at St. Columba’s School in New Delhi, the capital. For disadvantaged children, digital technology can provide new opportunities to learn, socialize and make their voices heard – or can be yet another dividing line, leaving millions of them behind.

Too little is being done to protect children from the perils of the digital world and to increase their access to safe online content.©UNICEF/UN036675/Sharma 11 December 2017

Ethiopia, 2012: World Humanitarian Day – held annually on 19 August – is an opportunity to honour fallen aid workers and pay tribute to their memory by raising awareness of humanitarian issues. For this year’s Day, the United Nations and its partners are drawing attention to the ways we can all help others by asking people to complete their own version of the statement “The world needs more …” UNICEF’s response? Action.

A worker helps Somali refugees in Dollo Ado.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0603/Ose 19 August 2013

Benin, 2006: Samsung, a 12-year-old orphan, sits in the home of his caretaker in Porto Novo, the capital. Orphans are highly vulnerable to abuse, exploitation and trafficking. Today, there are over 34,000 orphans in the country.

UNICEF supports programmes to shelter, educate and provide vocational training to orphans and other vulnerable children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2861/Pudlowski 19 April 2010

State of Palestine, 2014: In Gaza, where children continue to recover from intense violence during the summer, adolescent boys practise parkour – athletic manoeuvres around obstacles. “During the war, we went through so much suffering and fear.

I practice this sport just to get the bad memories and stress out of my brain,” said Hamza (standing at centre).©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-2063/Romenzi 10 November 2014

Syrian Arab Republic, 2016: Abdulaziz (in red), 10, whose father was killed in the continuing conflict, spends time with his friends at the ‘Land of Childhood’ – two basements linked with a tunnel to create an underground playground that gives children a relatively safe place to have fun in their besieged area.

“My mom doesn’t allow me to play in the street with the neighbours’ children but when she learnt that this place is underground she let me come here to play,” Abdulaziz said.©UNICEF/UN041513/Alshami 28 November 2016

Niger, 2018: Sudanese youths play football in Agadez Region, at a ‘hostel’ for migrants who had hoped to reach Europe via Algeria or Libya and are being forcibly sent home. Migrant children are being expelled to Niger in growing numbers as European and North African countries tighten their borders.

With government negotiations currently underway on the UN Global Compacts for Migration and on Refugees, UNICEF is calling for stronger cross-border solutions to keep children safe.©UNICEF/UN0209677/Gilbertson VII Photo 18 June 2018

Mali, 2017: Farimata Dicko, 13 months old, gets her hands washed before being fed a ready-to-use therapeutic food for severe acute malnutrition, at the Bellafarendi health centre in Timbuktu region. The acute malnutrition rate among children under 5 in Timbuktu has reached a critical level in conflict-affected areas of the region.

Global Handwashing Day, celebrated every year on 15 October, increases awareness and understanding about the importance of handwashing with soap.©UNICEF/UN0126761/Dicko 16 October 2017

Philippines, 2011: Marian [NAME CHANGED], 16, shows scars and abrasions on her arms, in Metropolitan Manila. “My mother hits me because I don’t go home,” she explained. “But why would I go home if I get beaten up?” Feeling unsafe at home, Marian live mostly on the streets.

An estimated 250,000 Filipino children live and work on the streets, increasing their risk of being trafficked or enduring other forms of exploitation and abuse.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2378/Pirozzi 24 September 2012

Eritrea, 2008: Women walk along a roadside outside of Keren, the second largest city in Eritrea. A fragile economy and five consecutive years of drought have contributed to chronic food insecurity, and ongoing border conflicts with Ethiopia and Djibouti threaten to escalate into war.

Forty per cent of children in the country are underweight, and rates of acute malnutrition are rising, while access to safe water and primary school enrolment is declining.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1623/Pirozzi 8 June 2009

South Sudan, 2014: Children and women queue to collect food rations in the town of Mingkaman. They are among 708,900 people – including an estimated 379,083 children – who have been internally displaced since resurgent violence erupted late last year.

Across the country, some 4.9 million people require humanitarian assistance. UNICEF support includes programmes in water, sanitation and hygiene, nutrition, health, education and child protection, but needs continue to outpace funding resources.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0349/Holt 31 March 2014

Haiti, 2010: Children play football in Fort National, a Port-au-Prince neighbourhood that remains heavily damaged by the 12 January earthquake. One year after the quake, recovery efforts continue to face bottlenecks, including an ongoing cholera outbreak.

Still, UNICEF and partners have reached millions with vital service, including immunization, therapeutic feeding, schools, and cholera treatment, and are laying the groundwork for long-term rebuilding.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2641/LeMoyne 10 January 2011

Syrian Arab Republic, 2016: “We had not been able to enter Madaya since late April,” UNICEF nutritionist Dr Raja Sharhan (left), conducting malnutrition screenings, said. “I was in here in January when … despite our frantic efforts, we watched one young man die right before our eyes.

And I came back in the months that followed, whenever we could get access. I was not sure what we would find this time.” UN interagency convoys are the first time UNICEF has had access in almost six months.

©UNICEF/UN033478/Saleh/WFP 3 October 2016

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2012: Adolescents in Khan Yunis view the Gazan border with Israel. Children and their families continue to recover from the recent conflict between the Gaza Strip and Israel that killed 158 Palestinians and six Israelis before the 21 November ceasefire.

UNICEF is supporting Gaza’s children, including by helping them cope with the psychological effects of the recurrent violence.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-1594/El-Baba 28 December 2012

Bolivia, 2008: A boy holds onto a ledge outside his home amid extensive floods caused by heavy rains linked to La Niña climate effects, in Santa Cruz Department. Climate change and environmental degradation undermine the rights of children and can affect their ability to live in safety, access water and food, and dwell in unpolluted communities.

UNICEF’s commitment to a more sustainable future includes empowering children and youth to become more involved in environmental action.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0408/Abramson 2 March 2015

Germany, 2016: “I loved living in Homs,” 7-year-old Syrian refugee Jannat Raslan – playing in a neigbourhood park near the shelter where her family now lives – said about her besieged hometown.

“I loved my grandmother who lived there … I miss her very much.” Nearly 50 million children around the world have been uprooted – 28 million of them driven from their homes by violence and conflict; and millions more are migrating in the hope of finding a better, safer life.

©UNICEF/UN026295/GilbertsonVII 12 September 2016

Guinea, 2015: A girl attends class in Guinea. Despite remarkable progress in education, nearly 58 million children of primary school age and 63 million children and adolescents of lower secondary school age are out of school around the globe.

As the World Education Forum takes place this week, UNICEF calls for the equitable expansion of education, ensuring every child – regardless of gender, location, ability or socioeconomic status – is reached with the opportunities learning affords.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0570/deMun 18 May 2015

Turkey, 2014: (Right) Nour, 11, who has Down Syndrome, and her family fled the Syrian conflict more than three years ago. She learned to read and write at school in her country, but the educational facility in the camp where she now lives is unable to accommodate children with special needs.

“Nour is one of the most special children in the camp,” says Ebru (left), a youth worker from the Turkish Red Crescent who leads activities at the UNICEF child-friendly space Nour attends.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0465/Yurtsever 19 May 2014

Nigeria, 2014: In many countries worldwide, significantly less public resources are used to educate children in the poorest 20 per cent of society than in the most affluent 20 per cent. Focusing on the needs of the most marginalized children ensures they too can access the opportunities unlocked through quality education.

In Nigeria’s Bauchi State, students walk to Gyezmo Primary School, which receives funding earmarked for girls’ education from international donors.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0704/Esiebo 26 January 2015

United Nations Headquarters, 2014: In support of children’s rights, artist Yoko Ono has endorsed #IMAGINE, UNICEF’s new interactive digital project that will allow everyday people to use an application to record their own version of ‘Imagine’, John Lennon’s iconic anthem of hope and peace.

Yoko Ono shows her support for child rights during the #IMAGINE launch held at UN Headquarters as part of 25th anniversary celebrations of the Convention On the Rights of the Child, on 20 November 2014.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-3069/Markisz 24 November 2014

Chad, 2011: Immunization programmes by UNICEF and its partners save more children from disease than any other public health intervention. Since 2000, measles vaccinations have cut under-five deaths from this disease by 74 per cent.

The world is also closer than ever before to eradicating polio everywhere. World Immunization Week – 21–28 April 2012 – calls for sustaining this commitment to reach even the most marginalized children.

Vaccinating against polio, in Logone Occidental Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2159/Esteve 23 April 2012

Mali, 2009: Accompanied by a friend, nine-year-old Baba Coulibaly dresses as a ‘yokoro’, or marionette, in Bamako. Baba is participating in the Malian tradition in which children celebrate the 10th day of Ramadan by wearing costumes and visiting neighbours for candy or small change.

Muslims around the world observe Ramadan with prayer, fasting and their own local traditions. This year, Ramadan lasts from 1 to 30 August.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2471/Diallo 15 August 2011

Liberia, 2014: A pregnant woman speaks with a health worker wearing personal protective equipment during a routine antenatal examination, at a healthcare facility in the West Point neighbourhood of Monrovia.

People in a nearby room are suffering from Ebola-like symptoms. The disease’s heavy caseload has disrupted basic health services in the country, including leaving many pregnant women without a safe place to deliver babies.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1779/Kesner 7 October 2014

Chad, 2011: Over 100,000 children in Chad’s Sahel belt suffer from malnutrition, the result of food shortages and rising prices, poverty and ongoing conflict. Conflict also contributes to health and educational risks for children; Chad, once free of polio, suffered 134 cases in 2011 after poliovirus was reimported.

Throughout the country, UNICEF supports programmes in nutrition, health, education and protection. A UNICEF-supported kindergarten in N’Djamena.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-2148/Esteve 13 February 2012

Haiti, 2010: An injured unaccompanied child lies in a field hospital five days after a 7.3 magnitude earthquake hit the country on 12 January. Unaccompanied children who have lost or been separated from their families are among the most vulnerable during the crisis.

UNICEF is the lead coordinating UN agency for child protection, education, nutrition and WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene).©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0016/LeMoyne 18 January 2010

Iraq, 2016: Muhammed Abdel Latif, 17, sits next to a photograph of his brother, Muhanad, 10, killed in the suicide bombing of a stadium in Iskandariya. A recent UNICEF report ‘A Heavy Price for Children’ notes that the number of children in danger has increased by 1.

3 million in 18 months. A third of all Iraqi children need humanitarian aid while many families face deteriorating conditions following military operations in Fallujah and around Mosul.©UNICEF/UNI204077/Khuzaie 5 July 2016

Sudan, 2011: Images of war are drawn on the wall of an abandoned health centre in southern Sudan, months before the region gained independence as the new country of South Sudan. Instability has continued on both sides of the border, with recent clashes in the disputed area of Abyei and fighting in Sudan’s Blue Nile State.

Children in both countries remain at risk, with high rates of under-five mortality, low primary school enrolment and insufficient immunization coverage.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0447/deViguerie 12 September 2011

Guinea-Bissau, 2012: To achieve equity for all children, current global, social and economic disparities that deprive children of the right to reach their full potential must be redressed. UNICEF seeks to address the root causes of inequity so that all children, particularly those who suffer the worst deprivations, have the support necessary for their optimal development.

A girl in Guinea-Bissau, one of the world’s poorest countries.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-2140/LeMoyne 18 March 2013

Jordan, 2013: One million child refugees have now fled the escalating war in Syria. Fatima, 10, and her parents escaped Syria’s conflict-affected Baba Amr district of Homs and now live in an enclosed room atop a roof in Mafraq.

“We don’t have water. I get it from the neighbours,” she said. Sometimes her family is also without food. “I miss Syria. I was very happy [there],” she explained. “My school … was very beautiful.

” Fatima dreams of one day becoming a doctor.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0490/Lyon 23 August 2013

Jordan, 2018: (Left-right) Ayham and Omar, both 14, at the UNICEF-supported Makani centre in Jerash. “I met Omar here a few weeks ago, and since then we have become best friends,” said Ayham, who is Jordanian.

Omar is a Syrian refugee. In countries affected by conflict, millions of children and young people need psychosocial support. Makani centres in camps and host communities provide safe, nurturing environments for children’s recovery, psychosocial well-being and protection.

©UNICEF/UN0218783/Shennawi 9 July 2018

Ethiopia, 2005: Ethiopia is again polio-free. It was first free of polio in 2001, but new cases emerged in 2005, the result of an importation of the virus from Nigeria. By 2010, UNICEF-supported immunization campaigns halted polio’s spread in Ethiopia.

But, all children must be reached; polio’s presence anywhere in the world remains a threat. Children of the semi-nomadic, agro-pastoralist Karo tribe, in South Omo Zone.©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-1294/Getachew 27 February 2012

Guinea, 2009: A girl attends class in an under-equipped school in the eastern city of Kindia. Primary school enrolment/attendance rates, currently at 51 per cent, are falling, and adult literacy stands at 30 per cent.

Poverty is widespread, with over 70 per cent of the population living on less than US$1.25 a day. Deteriorating public health systems and political unrest are also contributing to the resurgence of preventable diseases, including measles and polio.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2334/Kamber 17 May 2010

Haiti, 2010: Young people watch a World Cup football match at an interim care centre for unaccompanied children in Port-au-Prince, the capital. Many of them lost family members and homes in the 12 January earthquake.

In three African countries, including World Cup host South Africa, UNICEF and partners are supporting World Cup-related initiatives that promote child protection, children’s rights and the participation of children in community activities.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1362/Ramoneda 12 July 2010

Greece, 2015: Globally, at least 60 million refugee and migrant children and young people are on the move – in search of a safe place to call home and a more stable life. They are among the most vulnerable people on the planet.

In this crisis for children, we all share the responsibility for preserving their childhood and their future. Malak, 7, who made the perilous sea crossing from Turkey with her mother, plays at the Kara Tepe reception centre on the island of Lesbos.

©UNICEF/UNI197058/Romenzi 4 April 2016

Kenya, 2012: Morukirion Karunon, from the nomadic Turkana tribe, returns to her hut with her three children, in the temporary settlement of Nakalala in Turkana Province. A UNICEF-supported satellite clinic in the settlement provides critical health services, including vaccinations and maternal care.

Turkana Province was among those worst affected by the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0781/Noorani 28 January 2013

Using photography to advocate for children: UNICEF images from 1990-2013

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2009: Liliane, 10, receives treatment for malaria at Biamba Marie Mutombo Hospital. The hospital was founded by Congolese-American NBA player Dikembe Mutombo and named in honor of his mother.

After years of war, it is the first modern medical facility to be built in the area in nearly 40 years.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-1306/Asselin 9 November 2009

Iraq, 2013: Over 2.2 million people – more than 1.1 million of them children – have fled the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic. Two boys play by their family’s tent, in the Domiz camp for Syrian refugees, in northern Iraq.

UNICEF initiatives for children in the camp include screenings to detect malnutrition, routine vaccinations, education support, psychosocial assistance and improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities.

©UNICEF/UKLA2013-00854/Schermbrucker 25 November 2013

Mexico, 2017: Displaced children shelter at a school in Jojutla Municipality, Morelos State, hard hit during the recent 7.1-magnitude earthquake – one of two that struck less than two weeks apart and destroyed children’s homes and schools.

With Government efforts focusing on reconstruction and a continued response to affected populations, UNICEF is calling for the needs and well-being of children in the country to be a key consideration in the wake of the massive destruction.

©UNICEF/UN0126261/Zehbrauskas 2 October 2017

Chad, 2010: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow administers an oral polio vaccination to a baby during the launch of a nationwide polio immunization campaign. The campaign is one of 16 launched throughout West Africa on 6 March.

Polio cases in Chad are of particular concern because the country has been a major conduit for the disease’s spread to other countries.© UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0348/Holt 8 March 2010

Chad, 2015: Rita, 14, fled an attack in Nigeria, amid violence threatening that country’s north-east, as well as the border regions in Cameroon, Chad and the Niger. She now lives with her father, mother and younger sister in the Dar es Salaam refugee camp, where she drew a picture of her brothers and sisters while attending a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space.

She does not know whether they are alive or dead. “Anyone else will not help you, but your family will,” she says.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-0717/Rita 13 April 2015

Liberia, 2014: In April 2014, social mobilizers walked for miles on foot to reach remote villages in Lofa County with life-saving information on how to prevent the spread of Ebola. Such efforts have been critical to the victory Liberia achieved on 9 May 2015, when the country was declared free of Ebola transmission.

Vigilant prevention efforts must continue while the disease’s threat still lingers in neighbouring Guinea and Sierra Leone.©UNICEF/UNI167529/Jallanzo 11 May 2015

Lebanon, 2016: UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Ricky Martin, playing football with Syrian children in the Al-Hissa informal refugee settlement, calls for increased focus on protecting the future of millions of vulnerable children whose lives have been shaped by displacement, violence and a persistent lack of opportunities as a result of the Syrian conflict.

About 1.1 million Syrians have sought refuge in the country since the crisis began in 2011; more than half of them are children.©UNICEF/UN020856/Choufany 6 June 2016

Côte d’Ivoire, 2013: An adolescent living with HIV picks up antiretroviral medication in Abidjan. On 29 November, UNICEF releases Children and AIDS: Sixth Stocktaking Report. Though the world now has what it takes to realize an AIDS-free generation, adolescents are the only age group in which AIDS-related deaths have increased.

Ensuring their access to high-impact interventions such as condoms and antiretroviral treatment is a critical part of reversing that trend.©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-1033/Asselin 2 December 2013

Afghanistan, 2015: Habibur Rahman (right), his two sons and his elderly mother are rebuilding their destroyed home in Kashaktan Village, northern Takhar Province, in the wake of the 7.5-magnitude earthquake that hit the country on 26 October.

Over 10,000 homes have been damaged or destroyed in the disaster. With freezing temperatures setting in, families – many of whom are now living in the open – are racing to rebuild.©UNICEF/AFGA2015-00005/Ashna 2 November 2015

South Africa, 2016: UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake tries out MomConnect, at Prince Mshiyeni Hospital in Durban. The innovative real-time tracking programme sends SMS text health alerts to mothers and pregnant women via mobile telephone, to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to improve the health of women and children living with HIV.

UNICEF showcased innovations and successes such as MomConnect at the 21st International AIDS Conference, held 18-22 July in Durban.©UNICEF/UN025404/Bisin 25 July 2016

Jordan, 2013: Since the last school year, almost 2 million Syrian children have dropped out of school. As Syria and neighbouring countries prepare for a new academic year, UNICEF is boosting efforts to ensure that children safely return to learning.

In Jordan, these efforts include a Back to School campaign to promote enrolment. Children attend class in Za’atari, now the world’s second-largest refugee camp. Of the camp’s 30,000 school-aged children, only about 15,000 are registered for school.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0561/Noorani 23 September 2013

Syrian Arab Republic, 2014: A boy in Grade 1, with the school bag he just received, in central Damascus. The country’s schools reopened in mid-September. UNICEF launched a national campaign to raise awareness of the importance of education and encourage children to return to learning.

UNICEF and partners also distributed school bags with stationery supplies to 1 million conflict-affected primary-school-aged children across the country.©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-1741/Rashidi 13 October 2014

Syrian Arab Republic, 2013: A man and a boy in Atma, an encampment for displaced persons, near the border with Turkey. Inside the Syrian Arab Republic, the conflict has affected some 6.8 million people, including 4.

25 million who have been internally displaced. Children are increasingly vulnerable, enduring the significant psychological toll of violence as well as the disintegration of infrastructure essential to their health and well-being – and their future.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2013-0691/Diffidenti 4 November 2013

Somalia 2016: Boys and girls formerly associated with armed forces or at risk of being recruited are gaining technical and life skills at a training centre run by UNICEF partner INTERSOS, in Baidoa in Bay Region.

Two decades of civil conflict in the country have led to countless child rights violations and left children increasingly vulnerable to violence, abuse and exploitation. The skills they learn will help them restart their lives once they are reintegrated into their communities.

©UNICEF/UN09630/Rich 15 February 2016

Yemen, 2017: A medical practitioner checks the nutrition status of a child suffering from severe acute malnutrition, in Bani Al-Harith, Sana’a. As the country’s brutal war enters its third year, children continue to pay the heaviest price.

Close to half a million children suffer from severe acute malnutrition – a 200 per cent increase since 2014. Families, unable to feed themselves and their children adequately, are eating much less, opting for less nutritious food or skipping meals.

©UNICEF/UN057347/Almang 27 March 2017

Lebanon, 2015: Hened Al Ahmad, a Syrian refugee in Rawda in Bekaa Valley, married a-year-and-a-half ago and is now a widow at age 14. Her husband died six months after they wed in their homeland. Pregnant at the time, she later miscarried – due, she said, to the pain and fear she felt.

In Lebanon, nearly one in four Syrian girls is estimated to have been married off by her parents before the age of 18 – forced into becoming an adult long before she was ready.©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-2811/Caldon 13 October 2015

Pakistan, 2011: A boy runs on a cracked sugarcane field in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. Millions continue to struggle in the aftermath of the 2010 floods, the worst in Pakistan’s history. Forty per cent of households lost entire food stocks, and over 2 million hectares of crops were destroyed, leaving 5.

7 million people without adequate access to food. UNICEF is working with the government and partners to respond to this disaster.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2982/Noorani 21 March 2011

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, 2011: A girl watches a peaceful demonstration in Martyrs’ Square, in Tripoli. Behind her is the newly adopted national flag. Though fighting lingers in several areas, most schools recently re-opened, allowing millions of children to resume their educations after month of insecurity.

UNICEF and partners are working with local officials to rehabilitate damaged school buildings and clear school grounds of explosive weapons left from the conflict.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1422/Diffidenti 26 September 2011

Nepal, 2007: Kumari, 16, is comforted by her sister at a hospital in the remote Eastern Region. She was in labour for three days before being referred to the district hospital, a six-hour-walk from her village, to undergo a Caesarean delivery.

Child survival and welfare is intimately tied to women’s health, and Nepal’s high maternal mortality rate, 830 per 100,000 births, reflects the limited access to quality antenatal care, skilled health workers and safe delivery services.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-1500/Khemka 17 November 2008

China, 2008: Girls read messages hung in memory of students who were killed when their school, Xingjian Elementary, collapsed in the 12 May 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province. The disaster killed 88,000 people and affected some 120 million.

UNICEF worked closely with the Government to provide emergency supplies, safe drinking water, temporary shelter, and school and health kits in the immediate aftermath of the emergency.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0555/Dean 4 May 2009

South Sudan, 2016: Girls wash foraged wild greens in a river’s unsafe waters, in the Torit region in Eastern Equatoria State, where late rains and insecurity in the region have led to failed crops and severe food insecurity, especially for the poorest.

An estimated 2.8 million people in the country, or a quarter of the population, are facing acute food and nutrition insecurity as a result of prolonged conflict, a worsening economic crisis and diminished household food stocks.

©UNICEF/UN025843/Everett 8 August 2016

Nigeria, 2016: Eleven-month-old Baba Gana Modou (with his mother, Kore Jid) is in his third week of treatment for severe acute malnutrition, at a UNICEF-supported health centre in the Banki internal displacement camp in Borno State.

In 2017, an estimated 244,000 children in Borno State alone will suffer from severe acute malnutrition – which can be deadly – and nearly half a million children in the country’s crisis-affected north-eastern region will face the life-threatening condition.

©UNICEF/UN028423/Esiebo 30 January 2017

Yemen, 2015: Anwar Hassan (right), at his family’s dilapidated makeshift dwelling with a friend, in the segregated Muhamasheen area of Mathbah in Sana’a, the capital. Huge inequities exist between the average Yemeni poor and the socially excluded Muhamasheen, who are the country’s poorest and most marginalized group.

The recent conflict in the country, and suspension of cash transfers to cover basic needs in vulnerable Muhamasheen households, poses a threat to their very survival.©UNICEF/UN013948/Shamsan 28 March 2016

Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2009: Muna, 17, shows a drawing depicting how she lost her leg to an artillery shell during Israel’s 22-day military incursion into the Gaza Strip. An estimated 1,300 people were killed, 430 of them children, and an additional 1,855 children were injured during the incursion.

Muna is receiving counselling through a programme supported by UNICEF and the Palestinian Center for Democracy and Conflict Resolution. ECHO is a major funder of UNICEF’s work in this programme.©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-0133/Pirozzi 25 May 2009

Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands), 2011: A girl looks out a window of Imeldahof Home, an orphanage that provides a safe haven for child survivors of sexual abuse or domestic violence, in the town of Noord.

New arrivals live in one house, where they are closely monitored for the first three months of their stay, before moving into other houses within the orphanage, where they form long-term relationships with other children.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-1882/LeMoyne 2 September 2014

Central African Republic, 2011: A health worker prepares to vaccinate a baby boy in a clinic in Bangui. This and other UNICEF-supported clinics offer routine vaccinations, check-ups, growth monitoring and other basic health services for children and women.

Central African children face the eighth highest under-five mortality rate in the world, a result of the impact of poverty and war on children’s ability to survive and thrive.©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0808/Grarup 31 October 2011

Liberia, 2011: Anne, a 6-year-old refugee from Côte d’Ivoire, is staying with a Liberian host family in the town of Loguatuo, in Nimba County. She fled her village alone to escape the violence that erupted after the 28 November 2010 presidential election.

Over 30,000 Ivorians have crossed the border into Liberia, 85 per cent of them children and women. Although they have been welcomed by host communities, the massive influx of people is exhausting food, safe water and other resources.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0015/Sautereau 31 January 2011

Ethiopia, 2005: Are you up-to-date? From 24 to 30 April, World Immunization Week 2014 urges everyone to ask this question for themselves and their children. Immunization protects against the suffering caused by vaccine-preventable diseases and saves 2–3 million lives each year.

But staying up-to-date on inoculations is critical to ensure lasting immunity. A health worker administers a dose of oral polio vaccine to a baby, in Tigray Region.©UNICEF/NYHQ2005-0560/Heger 21 April 2014

Central African Republic, 2014: (Centre) UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow greets internally displaced mothers and their children at the St. Michel displacement site. This is Ms. Farrow’s fourth visit to the country to focus attention on the continuing humanitarian crisis.

Violence and conflict continue to worsen living conditions in the country – already among the world’s poorest, where children have long been deprived of education, protection and basic social and health services.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2014-0865/Bindra 7 July 2014

Fiji, 2016: “It was the most terrifying night of my life,” 13-year-old Makereta Nasiki – sitting in her storm-damaged home in the town of Ba on Viti Levu Island – said about Tropical Cyclone Winston.

“Our family had to move to three different places during the storm at night.” With communications still down for many, little information is available so far about the communities on Fiji’s outer islands that were directly in the path of the Category 5 storm.

©UNICEF/UN011243/Sokhin 29 February 2016

Malawi, 2016: Alinafe’s family eats a daily meal of dried peas in Balaka district. El Niño’s impact on children is worsening as hunger, malnutrition and disease increase following severe droughts and floods.

Many affected families have exhausted their coping mechanisms such as skipping meals and selling off assets. In Eastern and Southern Africa – the worst hit regions – some 26.5 million children need support, including more than one million children with severe acute malnutrition.

©UNICEF/UN024071/Rich 11 July 2016

Somalia, 2012: Under-five mortality rates in Somalia are the second highest in the world and have not changed since 1990. In the same timeframe, global rates have declined from 12 million deaths per year to 6.

9 million annually. This tragedy for Somali children is the result of poverty and drought conditions that cannot be addressed because of decades of war. Women tend their sick children in the paediatric ward of a UNICEF-supported hospital in Mogadishu.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0671/Holt 29 October 2012

Haiti, 2010: A woman and her infant in Port-au-Prince. Data released on 13 September 2012 shows significant progress in reducing child mortality: globally, the number of under-five child deaths fell from nearly 12 million in 1990 to an estimated 6.

9 million in 2011. To further accelerate action on maternal, newborn and child survival, a global movement – ‘Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed’ – has garnered the support of over 100 governments since its June 2012 launch.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-1269/Ramoneda 17 September 2012

Niger, 2012: 10 May 2012 marks the tenth anniversary of ‘A World Fit for Children’. The document – committing governments to specific health, education and protection goals for children – was adopted in 2002 at the United Nation’s first-ever General Assembly Special Session on Children.

A world where all children survive and thrive depends on leaders’ continued vigilance to keep these promises. An infant and her mother, in Niamey.©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0156/Quaryme 14 May 2012

South Africa, 2008: One-year-old Tanya is being treated for cholera in the town of Musina, along the Zimbabwe border. In the past month, the spread of cholera from Zimbabwe has resulted in 720 cases of the disease, with 11 deaths.

Cholera is now present in all nine South African provinces, with the majority of cases near Musina. Disease risks are exacerbated by the flow of illegal immigrants from Zimbabwe, which is now in the midst of a growing humanitarian crisis.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1304/Tanner 15 December 2008

Zambia, 2009: Mirriam holds her infant son, Peter, in the rural Mansa District. Mirriam is HIV-positive but Peter is not, thanks to a programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the disease.

Zambia has made great strides in expanding PMTCT services, which are now available in 70 per cent of health facilities. By 2009, antiretroviral drugs, an important part of PMTCT, were administered to about half of HIV-positive children and some 57 per cent of HIV-positive women.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2338/Nesbitt 24 January 2011

Ghana, 2015: Phillip Baawuo holds his newborn son at the Bolatanga Regional Hospital, with his wife Gloria beside him. They are using Kangaroo care, an intervention that keeps premature babies warm, by holding them skin-to-skin, without the need for an incubator.

This simple technique has been responsible for improving the survival rate of low-birthweight babies. Close body contact helps to stabilize babies’ body temperatures, steady their heart rates and help with their breathing.

©UNICEF/GHAA2015-04031/Quarmyne 16 November 2015

Niger, 2015: A boy in Tillabéri Region makes his way through floodwaters. Climate change will increase the threat of severe weather events, such as floods, posing grave risks to children’s survival.

“As escalating droughts and flooding degrade food production, children will bear the greatest burden of hunger and malnutrition,” UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake says. Over half a billion children now live in extremely high flood occurrence zones.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2015-1883/GilbertsonVII 7 December 2015

Sudan, 2006: A girl at a UNICEF-provided water point, in a displacement camp in West Darfur State. World Water Day – held annually on 22 March – highlights the importance of freshwater to life’s myriad facets.

In 2014, the Day is drawing focused attention to the interdependence of water and energy. As the demand for both continues to rise despite their limited supply, users of these vital resources must look toward actions that promote conservation and sustainability.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2006-2187/Cranston 17 March 2014

Jordan, 2012: A boy and his father in Cyber City, a transit facility for Syrian refugees, in Ramtha. They, the boy’s mother and oldest siblings arrived in Jordan one month before; the family’s youngest child was born just four days earlier.

By late September, over 226,700 Syrians had fled to neighbouring countries. UNICEF has requested US$123 million to fund its ongoing support for affected children both in and outside Syria. Less than 25 per cent has been received to date.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0851/Brooks 1 October 2012

Iraq 2015: Girls attend school in a tent at a UNICEF-supported displacement camp near Baghdad, the capital. The country’s continuing conflict has put children especially at risk. Many of them not only lack safe places to live, but also to learn: Just 50 per cent of children in camps have access to schooling.

A US $2.8 billion appeal being launched by UNICEF targets 43 million children in humanitarian emergencies worldwide. A quarter of the appeal is devoted to education.©UNICEF/UNI194536/Khuzaie 26 January 2016

Mauritania, 2012: Some 35,000 children are acutely malnourished in Mauritania, with numbers expected to reach 90,000 by year’s end. The country is one of eight facing the nutrition crisis in Africa’s Sahel region.

UNICEF support includes screenings to identify malnutrition and providing therapeutic foods to treat it, but needs far exceed current funding. Seven-month-old Kumbaba, who is severely malnourished, visits a nutrition centre, in Kaédi, Gorgol Region.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2012-0465/Brandt 2 July 2012

South Africa, 2010: Minenhle and her grandmother live with ten other family members in Matshesi Village. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) celebrated its 20th anniversary on 20 November 2009.

The CRC is the most endorsed human rights treaty in the world, expressing in international law the rights due every child. Article 5 enjoins States to “respect the…rights and duties of parents” and “members of the extended family.

”©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-0585/Pirozzi 11 October 2010

Côte d’Ivoire, 2011: In Bahé Village, a girl walks past United Nations peacekeepers patrolling the area after armed men reportedly threatened civilians. Sporadic violence continues to impede recovery from the conflict that followed the November 2010 presidential election.

UNICEF and partners are providing critical assistance as the situation slowly improves, distributing school and medical supplies, safe drinking water, and conducting several large-scale vaccination campaigns.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2011-0554/Asselin 31 May 2011

Central African Republic, 2008: A woman collects water from a well in the northern Ouham-Pendé Prefecture. Three-quarters of the country’s population lacks access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene services, and women spend hours every day fetching water.

In addition, an estimated 1 million people are affected by conflict, especially in the north, where most health and education facilities have been destroyed.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0589/Holtz 8 December 2008

Mongolia, 2018: Delgermurun Tsolomon with her 8 day-old baby, Sugarmaa, and her family outside their ‘ger’ (nomadic tent) in the Alag-Erdene area. Sugarmaa weighed just 3.8 kg at birth. Thanks to midwife care and the services from a local health centre, she is thriving. Every year, 2.6 million newborns die – 1 million of them do not survive their first day. Ending preventable newborn deaths through clean, functional health facilities within the reach of every mother and baby.

Central African Republic, 2007: Girls and women continue to endure high rates of gender-related violence, especially in conflict-affected northern parts of the country. And more than one third of the population is affected by warring parties, who have destroyed vital infrastructure, including schools.

A girl attends school in the village of Mélé – because of conflict, only half of the children in the region go to school.©UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2430/Holtz 12 November 2012

Jamaica, 2008: Children play outside their homes in Kingston, the capital. A national survey reported that 60 per cent of children aged 9 to 17 have a family member who has been victimized by violence.

UNICEF supports violence prevention and other protection services for vulnerable children.©UNICEF/NYHQ2008-0260/Markisz 29 September 2008

Bangladesh, 2017: A woman hands her baby across a drainage ditch to a girl before crossing, in a makeshift settlement for Rohingya refugees, in Cox’s Bazaar District, following Cyclone Mora. Across the globe, nearly 21.

3 million refugees – more than half of whom are children – have been forced to flee their homes, including to escape conflict, violence, persecution and extreme weather. World Refugee Day, held every year on 20 June, commemorates their strength, courage and resilience.

©UNICEF/UN068176/Noorani 19 June 2017

Benin, 2010: Families cook over an open fire in a Zogbodomé camp for people displaced by flooding, which occurred in November-December 2010 and affected much of West Africa, including 680,000 people in Benin.

Floodwaters have now receded, revealing widespread damage to infrastructure and agriculture. UNICEF is assisting students and schools in flood areas, aiding the rehabilitation of health centres, and supporting the treatment of contaminated water sources.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2812/Sautereau 14 February 2011

Cameroon, 2010: A girl carries water in Maroua City in the Far North Region, where a major cholera outbreak infected thousands and killed hundreds in mid-2010. Only five per cent of people in the region have access to latrines, and fewer than 30 per cent have access to safe water.

UNICEF and other partners are supporting Government initiatives to prevent future cholera outbreaks, but only the provision of safe water and adequate sanitation for all will eliminate this threat.©UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2315/Bouvet 14 November 2011

Bangladesh, 2016: (Batting) fourth-grader Rakib Hosain Sabbi, 9, in Satkhira Sadar wants to at least complete the 10th grade so that he can get a good job. He is being tutored after school so that he can succeed.

The world has achieved impressive gains for children, including in education. But progress has not been even, or fair. UNICEF’s The State of the World’s Children 2016 report notes that progress will not be sustainable unless it focuses on the most disadvantaged children.

©UNICEF/UN023540/GilbertsonVII 27 June 2016

Niger, 2009: Three-month-old Abdoulrachid laughs outside his home in Maradi Region. He is exclusively breastfed, thanks to a UNICEF-supported programme that encourages healthy family practices. Exclusive breastfeeding offers babies vital protection against common childhood illnesses and reduces infant mortality.

©UNICEF/NYHQ2009-2569/Holtz 2 August 2010

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