Family Pictures With Baby On Bed

newborn photography Family Pictures With Baby On Bed

newborn photography Family Pictures With Baby On Bed

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The term blended family or stepfamily describes families with mixed parents: one or both parents remarried, bringing children of the former family into the new family.[26] Also in sociology, particularly in the works of social psychologist Michael Lamb,[27] traditional family refers to “a middle-class family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children,” and nontraditional to exceptions from this rule. Most of the US households are now non-traditional under this definition.[28] Critics of the term “traditional family” point out that in most cultures and at most times, the extended family model has been most common, not the nuclear family,[29] though it has had a longer tradition in England[30] than in other parts of Europe and Asia which contributed large numbers of immigrants to the Americas. The nuclear family became the most common form in the U.S. in the 1960s and 1970s.[31]

However, Swedish statisticians reported in 2013 that, in contrast to many countries, since the 2000s, fewer children have experienced their parents’ separation, childlessness had decreased in Sweden and marriages had increased. It had also become more common for couples to have a third child suggesting that the nuclear family was no longer in decline in Sweden.[169]:10

Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children.[85] In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.[86] Child abuse can occur in a child’s home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides a right to respect for one’s “private and family life, his home and his correspondence”, subject to certain restrictions that are “in accordance with law” and “necessary in a democratic society”.[155]

In some parts of the world, some governments promote a specific form of family, such as that based on traditional family values. The term “family values” is often used in political discourse in some countries, its general meaning being that of traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family’s structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals, usually involving the “traditional family”—a middle-class family with a breadwinner father and a homemaker mother, raising their biological children. Any deviation from this family model is considered a “nontraditional family”.[153] These family ideals are often advanced through policies such as marriage promotion. Some jurisdictions outlaw practices which they deem as socially or religiously unacceptable, such as fornication, cohabitation or adultery.

Percentage of births to unmarried women, selected countries, 1980 and 2007[57]

Bride price, (also bridewealth or bride token), is property paid by the groom or his family to the parents of a woman upon the marriage of their daughter to the groom. It is practiced mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of South-East Asia (Thailand, Cambodia), and parts of Central Asia.

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Christopher Harris notes that the western conception of family is ambiguous and confused with the household, as revealed in the different contexts in which the word is used.[11] Olivia Harris states this confusion is not accidental, but indicative of the familial ideology of capitalist, western countries that pass social legislation that insists members of a nuclear family should live together, and that those not so related should not live together; despite the ideological and legal pressures, a large percentage of families do not conform to the ideal nuclear family type.[12]

An infant, his mother, his maternal grandmother, and his great-grandmother

In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word “family”[citation needed] […] from Latin familia ‘family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,’ thus also ‘members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,’ abstract noun formed from famulus ‘servant, slave […]'[1]) or some combination of these.[citation needed] Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters[citation needed]. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law[citation needed]. Sometimes these are also considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual’s specific relationship with them[citation needed].

“Next time you see your child sitting on the couch, scooch right next to them and see where the conversation takes you.”

“Times have changed; it is more acceptable and encouraged for mothers to work and fathers to spend more time at home with the children. The way roles are balanced between the parents will help children grow and learn valuable life lessons. There is [the] great importance of communication and equality in families, in order to avoid role strain.”[17]

One of the controversies regarding the family is the application of the concept of social justice to the private sphere of family relations, in particular with regard to the rights of women and children. Throughout much of the history, most philosophers who advocated for social justice focused on the public political arena, not on the family structures; with the family often being seen as a separate entity which needed to be protected from outside state intrusion. One notable exception was John Stuart Mill, who, in his work The Subjection of Women, advocated for greater rights for women within marriage and family.[164] Second wave feminists argued that the personal is political, stating that there are strong connections between personal experiences and the larger social and political structures. In the context of the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s, this was a challenge to the nuclear family and family values, as they were understood then.[165] Feminists focused on domestic violence, arguing that the reluctance—in law or in practice—of the state to intervene and offer protection to women who have been abused within the family, is in violation of women’s human rights, and is the result of an ideology which places family relations outside the conceptual framework of human rights.[166]

In 2013, just over 40% of US babies were born outside marriage. The Census bureau estimated that 27% of all children lived in a fatherless home. Europe has seen a surge in child-free adults. One in five 40-something women are childless in Sweden and in Switzerland, in Italy one in four, in Berlin one in three. So-called traditional societies are seeing the same trend. About one-sixth of Japanese women in their forties have never married and about 30% of all woman that age are childless.

Family policies differ significantly between countries. Depending on jurisdiction, family policy may have a multiplicity of functions: horizontal redistribution, the enhancement of individual choices, increasing fertility rates, supporting economic growth and productivity, as well as reducing gender inequalities (Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser 2015).[151] From a societal perspective, family policies can contribute to “horizontal redistribution” between generations, as well as between households with and without children; to favour individual choices by supporting the reconciliation between care and paid work; and to reduce the costs of having children and child poverty. From an economic perspective, employment-oriented family policy is part of an overall redesign of welfare states geared to foster “active citizenship”, also among mothers who were formerly not employed, through the development of an “enabling state”. More generous family policies are said to lead to higher employment rates for women, mitigate the risk of unemployment for mothers after a substantial period of leave, support a social investment strategy, and offset some of the costs of raising children. From many feminist perspectives, family policies should aim at equalising opportunities between men and women through de-familialising care, encouraging men’s involvement in care work, and facilitating employment opportunities for women. Profound social, economic, and cultural changes have led in many societies to the decline of the “male breadwinner model” and the move towards a variety of “adult worker models” (Daly 2011). Nevertheless, family policy expansion has not always fundamentally challenged gender inequalities: overall men have not increased their contribution to care work sufficiently to “compensate” for women’s increased labour force participation and slightly reduced participation in care.

In 1993, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women identified domestic violence as one of three contexts in which violence against women occurs, describing it as:[79]

“Child maltreatment, sometimes referred to as child abuse and neglect, includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity.

Within this broad definition, five subtypes can be distinguished – physical abuse; sexual abuse; neglect and negligent treatment; emotional abuse; and exploitation.” There exists legislation to prevent and punish the occurrence of these offences.

There are laws regarding familial sexual activity, which states that it is a criminal offence to have any kind of sexual relationship between one’s grandparent, parent, sibling, aunt or uncle.[82][83]

A family is often part of a sharing economy with common ownership.

The Russian-American rationalist and individualist philosopher, novelist and playwright Ayn Rand compared partiality towards consanguinity with racism, as a small-scale manifestation of the latter.[160] “The worship of the family is merely racism, like a crudely primitive first installment on the worship of the tribe. It places the accident of birth above a man’s values and duty to the tribe above a man’s right to his own life.”[161] Additionally, she spoke in favor of childfree lifestyle, while following it herself.[160]

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Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. Child mortality is the death of a child before the child’s fifth birthday. Like maternal mortality, infant and child mortality were common throughout history, but have decreased significantly in modern times.[149][150]

Domestic violence (DV) is violence that happens within the family. The legal and social understanding of the concept of DV differs by culture. The definition of the term “domestic violence” varies, depending on the context in which it is used.[77] It may be defined differently in medical, legal, political or social contexts. The definitions have varied over time, and vary in different parts of the world.

The term “nuclear family” is commonly used, especially in the United States of America, to refer to conjugal families. A “conjugal” family includes only the husband, the wife, and unmarried children who are not of age.[18][not in citation given] Some sociologists[which?] distinguish between conjugal families (relatively independent of the kindred of the parents and of other families in general) and nuclear families (which maintain relatively close ties with their kindred).[citation needed][19][20] Other family structures – with (for example) blended parents, single parents, and domestic partnerships – have begun to challenge the normality of the nuclear family.[21][22][23]

With Christmas just around the corner, the Duggars want to help you with your Christmas shopping. The four youngest Duggar daughters, plus niece Mackynzie, are pleased to offer a sale on their new CD, Happy Heart.

If you buy two or more, you’ll get them for just $10 each (a savings of $2 per CD). Visit the family’s website to purchase.On another note, can you believe how grown up these five Duggar girls are looking? They are still the “babies” of the family, but they sure don’t look the part.

Johannah just turned 13, Jennifer recently celebrated her 11th birthday, Jordyn and Josie will soon be 10 and 9, and Mackynzie turned 9 in October.Photo courtesy duggarfamily.com

In an era of perceived permanent austerity and overall welfare state retrenchment, rich OECD countries have not been prevented from expanding family policies (Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser 2015).[151] In fact, in many of these countries there has been an expansion of family policies, leading to a socialisation of family care responsibilities, traditionally disproportionately performed by women (Daly and Lewis 2000). Although at the institutional policy level, the expansion of family policy might be characterised as a “silent revolution”, relevant for gender equality, a cautious interpretation might be necessary: gender inequalities in income, opportunities, leisure and other significant outcomes remain and are sometimes sustained by policy, even if there is an observed shift in their character towards support for women’s employment (Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser 2015).

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Forced and child marriages are practiced in certain regions of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa, and these types of marriages are associated with a high rate of domestic violence.[90][91][92][93]

Settled Sami (Lapplander) family of farmers in Stensele, Västerbotten, Sweden, early 20th century

Polygyny is a form of plural marriage, in which a man is allowed more than one wife .[37] In modern countries that permit polygamy, polygyny is typically the only form permitted. Polygyny is practiced primarily (but not only) in parts of the Middle East and Africa; and is often associated with Islam, however, there are certain conditions in Islam that must be met to perform polygyny.

Bilateral descent is a form of kinship system in which an individual’s family membership derives from and is traced through both the paternal and maternal sides. The relatives on the mother’s side and father’s side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. It is a family arrangement where descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents.[44] Families who use this system trace descent through both parents simultaneously and recognize multiple ancestors, but unlike with cognatic descent it is not used to form descent groups.[45]

Father: a male parent Mother: a female parent Son: a male child of the parent(s) Daughter: a female child of the parent(s) Brother: a male sibling Sister: a female sibling Husband: a male spouse Wife: a female spouse Grandfather: the father of a parent Grandmother: the mother of a parent Cousins: two people who share at least one grandparent in common, but none of the same parents.

(In some language there is a difference between a grandfather/grandmother from the father’s side and one from the mother’s side)

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Grandparent Grandfather: a parent’s father Grandmother: a parent’s mother Grandchild Grandson: a child’s son Granddaughter: a child’s daughter

Traditionally, this is found among some groups in West Africa, India, Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Malaysia and Polynesia. Anthropologists believe that a tribal structure based on bilateral descent helps members live in extreme environments because it allows individuals to rely on two sets of families dispersed over a wide area.[46]

Such systems generally assume that the mother’s husband is also the biological father. In some families, a woman may have children with more than one man or a man may have children with more than one woman. The system refers to a child who shares only one parent with another child as a “half-brother” or “half-sister”. For children who do not share biological or adoptive parents in common, English-speakers use the term “stepbrother” or “stepsister” to refer to their new relationship with each other when one of their biological parents marries one of the other child’s biological parents. Any person (other than the biological parent of a child) who marries the parent of that child becomes the “stepparent” of the child, either the “stepmother” or “stepfather”. The same terms generally apply to children adopted into a family as to children born into the family. In the United States, one in five mothers have children by different fathers; among mothers with two or more children the figure is higher, with 28% having children with at least two different men. Such families are more common among Blacks and Hispanics, and among the lower socioeconomic class.[42]

— Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality vol I, chap. IV, sect. Method, rule 3, p. 99

Patrilineality, also known as the male line or agnatic kinship, is a form of kinship system in which an individual’s family membership derives from and is traced through his or her father’s lineage.[43] It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names, or titles by persons related through male kin.

Elder abuse is, according to the WHO: “a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person”.[84]

Family medicine is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; it is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion.[144] The importance of family medicine is being increasingly recognized.[145]

Polyandry is a form of marriage whereby a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.[38] Fraternal polyandry, where two or more brothers are married to the same wife, is a common form of polyandry. Polyandry was traditionally practiced in areas of the Himalayan mountains, among Tibetans in Nepal, in parts of China and in parts of northern India. Polyandry is most common in societies marked by high male mortality or where males will often be apart from the rest of the family for a considerable period of time.[38]

The term “extended family” is also common, especially in the United States. This term has two distinct meanings:

“Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation”.

Family violence[edit]

Matrilineality is a form of kinship system in which an individual’s family membership derives from and is traced through his or her mother’s lineage.

Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as “the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.”[147] Historically, maternal mortality was a major cause of women’s death. In recent decades, advances in healthcare have resulted in rates of maternal mortality having dropped dramatically, especially in Western countries. Maternal mortality however remains a serious problem in many African and Asian counties.[147][148]

In some cultures, the mother’s preference of family size influences that of the children through early adulthood.[14] A parent’s number of children strongly correlates with the number of children that they will eventually have.[15]

The family is also an important economic unit studied in family economics.

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The American journalist Marty Nemko considers family to be overrated. “Politicians, clerics, and just plain folks extol family as our most important institution. / I believe family is overrated. So many people suffer inordinately from family. … / Millions of people don’t even speak with a family member. Millions more spend years and fortunes on therapists, trying to undo the ills that family perpetrated on them. / All this shouldn’t be surprising. After all, unlike with friends, we are placed in our family of origin at random, with no say in the matter.”[163]

It may also correlate with a societal system in which each person is identified with their matriline—their mother’s lineage—and which can involve the inheritance of property and titles. A matriline is a line of descent from a female ancestor to a descendant in which the individuals in all intervening generations are mothers – in other words, a “mother line”.

The family being such a deep-rooted and much-venerated institution, few intellectuals have ventured to speak against it. Familialism has been atypically defined as a “social structure where … a family’s values are held in higher esteem than the values of the individual members of the family.”[159] Favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit is called nepotism.

For collateral relatives, more classificatory terms come into play, terms that do not build on the terms used within the nuclear family:

Contemporary society generally views the family as a haven from the world, supplying absolute fulfillment. Zinn and Eitzen discuss the image of the “family as haven […] a place of intimacy, love and trust where individuals may escape the competition of dehumanizing forces in modern society”.[52] During industrialization, “[t]he family as a repository of warmth and tenderness (embodied by the mother) stands in opposition to the competitive and aggressive world of commerce (embodied by the father). The family’s task was to protect against the outside world.”[53] However, Zinn and Eitzen note, “The protective image of the family has waned in recent years as the ideals of family fulfillment have taken shape. Today, the family is more compensatory than protective. It supplies what is vitally needed but missing in other social arrangements.”[54]

Group photograph of a Norwegian family by Gustav Borgen ca. 1900: Father, mother, three sons and two daughters.

The policy shift has been particularly significant in countries that had previously emphasised more conservative approaches to family policies, such as Germany, Ireland, Japan, and Norway. Hence, it can no longer be assumed that in the majority of rich OECD countries care for young children will be mainly provided through unpaid work within the family. Nevertheless, a certain number of countries still fail to provide adequate childcare arrangements, constituting a barrier for full-time maternal employment. Furthermore, in some countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, gender discrimination continues to strongly intersect with class; high childcare costs constitute a disincentive to labour force participation, especially among less educated and unskilled women (Esping-Andersen 2009). This means that higher-class and more educated women tend to have better opportunities than women belonging to a lower social class.

These types refer to ideal or normative structures found in particular societies. Any society will exhibit some variation in the actual composition and conception of families.

The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence states that:[78]

“It was a very quick transition from bachelor status to now very much not a bachelor. It’s been a wonderful transition so far, and I’m not looking back.” -John-David Duggar Bachelor ’til the rapture no more! John Duggar is a married man, and he’s thrilled about his new relationship status.

John and Abbie’s wedding preview is now available on the TLC website and TLC Go app. (The links are in our previous post.) Below are a few highlights from the preview, but we still recommend that you watch it for yourself, either by signing in with your TV provider or tuning in live to TLC on November 27th or 28th.

(TV listings are on our Showtimes page.)Abbie Burnett is from Stratford, Oklahoma, and is the fourth of seven siblings. She has worked as a nurse for one year and has a passion for geriatrics. “…I just love little old people,” says Abbie.

John and Abbie met earlier this year (although they say they have known of each other for several years) when Jim Bob and Michelle were speaking at a church near Abbie’s hometown–Ada First Baptist in Ada, Oklahoma.

They started texting, became boyfriend and girlfriend, and announced their courtship to the Duggars…all within two weeks of meeting each other. “[Abbie] is just…perfect for [John],” says Jana. “..

.I approve.”Within just two months, they were engaged at an airplane hanger in Texas. Like past Duggar couples, John and Abbie saved their first kiss for their wedding day. “The first kiss is definitely a highlight, but it’s not the biggest highlight of the day,” says John.

The wedding takes place on November 3rd at the place where John and Abbie’s relationship began–Ada First Baptist Church. Abbie wears a dress designed by Renee Miller of Renee’s bridal. Abbie’s father leads the couple in their vows.

Surprisingly, Abbie’s father’s name is John. (Her mother is Cheryl Burnett.) While the couple lights the unity candle, Josiah and Lauren Duggar sing a song that is a wedding tradition for the Burnetts.

  After the vows, some of John’s younger brothers fly Abbie’s wedding ring to the stage on a drone. Joe catches it and hands it to John. When it comes time to kiss the bride, John kisses Abbie’s hands, arms, and forehead (while she laughs and smiles) before going in for a long and passionate kiss on the lips.

When additional generations intervene (in other words, when one’s collateral relatives belong to the same generation as one’s grandparents or grandchildren), the prefixes “great-” or “grand-” modifies these terms. Also, as with grandparents and grandchildren, as more generations intervene the prefix becomes “great-grand-,” adding another “great-” for each additional generation. Most collateral relatives have never had membership of the nuclear family of the members of one’s own nuclear family.

The parents’ rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues affecting parents and children related to family law, specifically parental rights and obligations. Mothers’ rights movements focus on maternal health, workplace issues such as labor rights, breastfeeding, and rights in family law. The fathers’ rights movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support, that affect fathers and their children.[122]

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health. These include the right to decide on issues regarding the number of children born, family planning, contraception, and private life, free from coercion and discrimination; as well as the right to access health services and adequate information.[112][113][114][115] According to UNFPA, reproductive rights “include the right to decide the number, timing and spacing of children, the right to voluntarily marry and establish a family, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health, among others”.[116] Family planning refers to the factors that may be considered by individuals and couples in order for them to control their fertility, anticipate and attain the desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births.[117][118]

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Hawaiian: only distinguishes relatives based upon sex and generation. Sudanese: no two relatives share the same term. Eskimo: in addition to distinguishing relatives based upon sex and generation, also distinguishes between lineal relatives and collateral relatives.

Iroquois: in addition to sex and generation, also distinguishes between siblings of opposite sexes in the parental generation. Crow: a matrilineal system with some features of an Iroquois system, but with a “skewing” feature in which generation is “frozen” for some relatives.

Omaha: like a Crow system but patrilineal. Roles[edit]

Certain social scientists have advocated the abolition of the family. An early opponent of the family was Socrates whose position was outlined by Plato in The Republic.[156] In Book 5 of The Republic, Socrates tells his interlocutors that a just city is one in which citizens have no family ties.[157][158]

According to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was “fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation”.[16]

Extended family with roots in Cape Town, Kimberley and Pretoria, South Africa

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The term “family of choice,” also sometimes referred to as “chosen family,” is common within the LGBT community, both in academic literature and in colloquial vocabulary. It refers to the group of people in an individual’s life that satisfies the typical role of family as a support system. The term differentiates between the “family of origin” (the biological family or that in which people are raised) and those that actively assume that ideal role.[25] The family of choice may or may not include some or all of the members of the family of origin. This terminology stems from the fact that many LGBT individuals, upon coming out, face rejection or shame from the families they were raised in. The term family of choice is also used by individuals in the 12 step communities, who create close-knit “family” ties through the recovery process.

In his book Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Although much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that kinship terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions. For example, most kinship terminologies distinguish between sexes (the difference between a brother and a sister) and between generations (the difference between a child and a parent). Moreover, he argued, kinship terminologies distinguish between relatives by blood and marriage (although recently some anthropologists have argued that many societies define kinship in terms other than “blood”).

Family honor is an abstract concept involving the perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects the social standing and the self-evaluation of a group of related people, both corporately and individually.[101][102] The family is viewed as the main source of honor and the community highly values the relationship between honor and the family.[103] The conduct of family members reflects upon family honor and the way the family perceives itself, and is perceived by others.[102] In cultures of honor maintaining the family honor is often perceived as more important than either individual freedom, or individual achievement.[104] In extreme cases, engaging in acts that are deemed to tarnish the honor of the family results in honor killings. An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the perpetrators’ belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family or community, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their relatives, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, or engaging in homosexual relations.[105][106][107][108][109]

Most Western societies employ Eskimo kinship terminology.[citation needed] This kinship terminology commonly occurs in societies based on conjugal (or nuclear) families, where nuclear families have a degree of relative mobility. Members of the nuclear use descriptive kinship terms:

Abuse of parents by their children is a common but under reported and under researched subject. Parents are quite often subject to levels of childhood aggression in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts, typically in the form of verbal or physical abuse. Parents feel a sense of shame and humiliation to have that problem, so they rarely seek help and there is usually little or no help available anyway.[87][88]

In terms of communication patterns in families, there are a certain set of beliefs within the family that reflect how its members should communicate and interact. These family communication patterns arise from two underlying sets of beliefs. One being conversation orientation (the degree to which the importance of communication is valued) and two, conformity orientation (the degree to which families should emphasize similarities or differences regarding attitudes, beliefs, and values).[32]

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Early scholars of family history applied Darwin’s biological theory of evolution in their theory of evolution of family systems.[47] American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan published Ancient Society in 1877 based on his theory of the three stages of human progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization.[48] Morgan’s book was the “inspiration for Friedrich Engels’ book” The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State published in 1884.[49]

As the young undergoes physical and psychological repression from someone for whom they develop love, they develop a loving attitude towards authority figures. They will bring such attitude in their adult life, when they will desire social repression and will form docile subjects for society.[69] Michel Foucault, in his systematic study of sexuality, argued that rather than being merely repressed, the desires of the individual are efficiently mobilized and used,[65] to control the individual, alter interpersonal relationships and control the masses. Foucault believed organized religion, through moral prohibitions, and economic powers, through advertising, make use of unconscious sex drives. Dominating desire, they dominate individuals.[76] According to the analysis of Michel Foucault, in the west:

Family violence is a broader definition, often used to include child abuse, elder abuse, and other violent acts between family members.[80]

Kinship Degree of relationship by coefficient Coefficient ofrelationship Degree of relationship by counting generations to common ancestor Identical twins 0 100%[39] second-degree Full sibling first-degree 50% (2×2−2) second-degree Parent-offspring[40] first-degree 50% (2−1) first-degree Half-sibling second-degree 25% (2−2) second-degree Grandmother/grandfather second-degree 25% (2−2) second-degree Niece/nephew/aunt/uncle second-degree 25% (2×2−3) third-degree Half Niece/nephew/aunt/uncle third-degree 12.

5% (2−3) third-degree First cousin third-degree 12.5% (2×2−4) fourth-degree Half first cousin fourth-degree 6.25% (2−4) fourth-degree Great grandparent third-degree 12.5% (2−3) third-degree First cousin once removed fifth-degree 6.

25% (2⋅2−5) fifth-degree Second cousin sixth-degree 3.125% (2−6+2−6) sixth-degree Terminologies[edit]

Family arrangements in the United States have become more diverse with no particular household arrangement representing half of the United States population.[51]

The core element to the harm of elder abuse is the “expectation of trust” of the older person toward their abuser. Thus, it includes harms by people the older person knows or with whom they have a relationship, such as a spouse, partner or family member, a friend or neighbor, or people that the older person relies on for services. Many forms of elder abuse are recognized as types of domestic violence or family violence.

A forced marriage is a marriage where one or both participants are married without their freely given consent.[94] The line between forced marriage and consensual marriage may become blurred, because the social norms of many cultures dictate that one should never oppose the desire of one’s parents/relatives in regard to the choice of a spouse; in such cultures it is not necessary for violence, threats, intimidation etc. to occur, the person simply “consents” to the marriage even if he/she doesn’t want it, out of the implied social pressure and duty. The customs of bride price and dowry, that exist in parts of the world, can lead to buying and selling people into marriage.[95][96]

In some countries married couples benefit from various taxation advantages not available to a single person or to unmarried couples. For example, spouses may be allowed to average their combined incomes. Some jurisdictions recognize common law marriage or de facto relations for this purposes. In some jurisdictions there is also an option of civil partnership or domestic partnership.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Families. Look up family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Family  “Family”. Encyclopædia Britannica.

10 (11th ed.). 1911. Family database, OECD, Family Research Laboratory, unh.edu “Family evolution and contemporary social transformations” (PDF). Seres.fcs.ucr.ac.cr. Estación de Economía Política.

Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-29. Family Facts: Social Science Research on Family, Society & Religion (a Heritage Foundation site). familyfacts.org Families Australia – independent peak not-for-profit organisation.

familiesaustralia.org.au FamilyPlatform – A consortium of 12 organisations providing input into the European Union’s Socio-Economic and Humanities Research Agenda on Family Research and Family Policies.

Unitedfamilies.org, International organisation UN.org, Families and Development Family, marriage and “de facto” unions, Vatican.va

Global maternal mortality rate per 100 000 live births, (2010)[143]

Race, Class, & Gender: An Anthology, 9th edition. Editors: Margaret L. Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins. Cengage Learning.

Two parents and a child: the statue Family in the garden of the Palace of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland

A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18.[97][90] Child marriage was common throughout history but is today condemned by international human rights organizations.[98][99][100] Child marriages are often arranged between the families of the future bride and groom, sometimes as soon as the girl is born.[98] Child marriages can also occur in the context of marriage by abduction.[98]

Family tree showing the relationship of each person to the black person.

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A “matrifocal” family consists of a mother and her children. Generally, these children are her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This kind of family occurs commonly where women have the resources to rear their children by themselves, or where men are more mobile than women. As a definition, “a family or domestic group is matrifocal when it is centred on a woman and her children. In this case, the father(s) of these children are intermittently present in the life of the group and occupy a secondary place. The children’s mother is not necessarily the wife of one of the children’s fathers.”[24]

Much sociological, historical and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, and of changes in the family that form over time. Levitan claims:

Work-family balance is a concept involving proper prioritizing between work/career and family life. It includes issues relating to the way how work and families intersect and influence each other. At a political level, it is reflected through policies such maternity leave and paternity leave. Since the 1950s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care, and the male breadwinner role, and policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers, as a tool of changing gender relations.[154]

Polygamy is a marriage that includes more than two partners.[34][35] When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, the relationship is called polygyny; and when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called polyamory,[36] group or conjoint marriage.[35]

Others argue that whether or not one views the family as “declining” depends on one’s definition of “family”. “Married couples have dropped below half of all American households. This drop is shocking from traditional forms of the family system. Only a fifth of households were following traditional ways of having married couples raising a family together.”[58] In the Western World, marriages are no longer arranged for economic, social or political gain, and children are no longer expected to contribute to family income. Instead, people choose mates based on love. This increased role of love indicates a societal shift toward favoring emotional fulfilment and relationships within a family, and this shift necessarily weakens the institution of the family.[59]

Typically, societies with conjugal families also favor neolocal residence; thus upon marriage, a person separates from the nuclear family of their childhood (family of orientation) and forms a new nuclear family (family of procreation). However, in western society, the single parent family has been growing more accepted and has begun to make an impact on culture. Single parent families are more commonly single mother families than single father. These families sometimes face difficult issues besides the fact that they have to rear their children on their own, for example, low income making it difficult to pay for rent, child care, and other necessities for a healthy and safe home. Members of the nuclear families of members of one’s own (former) nuclear family may class as lineal or as collateral. Kin who regard them as lineal refer to them in terms that build on the terms used within the nuclear family:

“The popular wisdom”, according to Zinn and Eitzen, sees the family structures of the past as superior to those today, and families as more stable and happier at a time when they did not have to contend with problems such as illegitimate children and divorce. They respond to this, saying, “there is no golden age of the family gleaming at us in the far back historical past.”[55] “Desertion by spouses, illegitimate children, and other conditions that are considered characteristics of modern times existed in the past as well.”[56]

” “domestic violence” shall mean all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim”.

The field of genealogy aims to trace family lineages through history.

Each jurisdiction has its own marriage laws. These laws differ significantly from country to country; and these laws are often controversial. Areas of controversy include women’s rights as well as same-sex marriage.

Children’s rights are the human rights of children, with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors, including their right to association with both parents, their right to human identity, their right to be provided in regard to their other basic needs, and their right to be free from violence and abuse.[123][124][125]

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Although early western cultural anthropologists and sociologists considered family and kinship to be universally associated with relations by “blood” (based on ideas common in their own cultures) later research[3] has shown that many societies instead understand family through ideas of living together, the sharing of food (e.g. milk kinship) and sharing care and nurture. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of family forms in stratified (especially capitalist) societies.[citation needed]

The British social critic, poet, mountaineer and occultist Aleister Crowley censured the institution of family in his works: “Horrid word, family! Its very etymology accuses it of servility and stagnation. / Latin, famulus, a servant; Oscan, Faamat, he dwells. … [T]hink what horrid images it evokes from the mind. Not only Victorian; wherever the family has been strong, it has always been an engine of tyranny. Weak members or weak neighbours: it is the mob spirit crushing genius, or overwhelming opposition by brute arithmetic. … In every Magical, or similar system, it is invariably the first condition which the Aspirant must fulfill: he must once and for all and for ever put his family outside his magical circle.”[162]

A monogamous family is based on a legal or social monogamy. In this case, an individual has only one (official) partner during their lifetime or at any one time (i.e. serial monogamy).[33] This means that a person may not have several different legal spouses at the same time, as this is usually prohibited by bigamy laws, in jurisdictions that require monogamous marriages.

Engels expanded Morgan’s hypothesis that economical factors caused the transformation of primitive community into a class-divided society.[50] Engels’ theory of resource control, and later that of Karl Marx, was used to explain the cause and effect of change in family structure and function. The popularity of this theory was largely unmatched until the 1980s, when other sociological theories, most notably structural functionalism, gained acceptance.

Part of a series on theAnthropology of kinship Social anthropologyCultural anthropology Relationships(Outline)

First, it serves as a synonym of “consanguinal family” (consanguine means “of the same blood”). Second, in societies dominated by the conjugal family, it refers to “kindred” (an egocentric network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group) who do not belong to the conjugal family.

A first-degree relative is one who shares 50% of your DNA through direct inheritance, such as a full sibling, parent or progeny.

Detail of a gold glass medallion with a portrait of a family, from Alexandria (Roman Egypt), 3rd–4th century (Brescia, Museo di Santa Giulia)[2]

The model, common in the western societies, of the family triangle, husband-wife-children isolated from the outside, is also called the oedipal model of the family, and it is a form of patriarchal family. Many philosophers and psychiatrists have analyzed such a model. In such a family, they argue, the young develop in a perverse relationship, wherein they learn to love the same person who beats and oppresses them. They believe that young children grow up and develop loving a person who is oppressing them physically or mentally, and that these children are not taught in a way that will raise affectionate children.[64] Such philosophers claim that the family therefore constitutes the first cell of the fascist society, as the children will carry this attitude of love for oppressive figures in their adult life.[65][66] They claim that fathers torment their sons.[67][68] Deleuze and Guattari, in their analysis of the dynamics at work within a family, “track down all varieties of fascism, from the enormous ones that surround and crush us to the petty ones that constitute the tyrannical bitterness of our everyday lives”.[65]

1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.

In a matrilineal descent system, an individual is considered to belong to the same descent group as her or his mother. This matrilineal descent pattern is in contrasts to the more common pattern of patrilineal descent pattern.

1 Social 1.1 Size 2 Types of family 2.1 Conjugal (nuclear or single) family 2.2 Matrifocal family 2.3 Extended family 2.4 Family of choice 2.5 Blended family 2.6 Monogamous family 2.7 Polygamous family 3 Kinship terminology 3.

1 Degrees of kinship 3.2 Terminologies 4 Roles 5 Types of kinship 5.1 Patrilineal 5.2 Matrilineal 5.3 Bilateral descent 6 History of theories 6.1 The nuclear family in industrial society 6.2 The postmodern family 6.

3 Oedipal family model and fascism 7 Domestic violence 7.1 Family violence 7.1.1 Parental abuse of children (child abuse) 7.1.2 Parental abuse by children 7.1.3 Elder abuse 7.2 Forced and child marriage 8 The concept of family honor 9 Economic issues 9.

1 Dowry, bride price and dower 9.2 Property regimes and taxation 10 Rights and laws 10.1 Reproductive rights 10.2 Parents’ rights 10.3 Children’s rights 10.4 Marriage rights 10.5 Legal reforms 11 Health 11.

1 Family medicine 11.2 Maternal mortality 11.3 Infant and child mortality 12 Politics 13 Work-family balance 13.1 Protection of private and family life 14 Criticism 15 The family and social justice 16 Global trends in family composition 17 See also 18 References 18.

1 Citations 18.2 Sources 19 Bibliography 20 External links

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The word “family” can be used metaphorically to create more inclusive categories such as community, nationhood, global village, and humanism.

Monica McGoldrick; Nydia A. Garcia Preto; Betty A. Carter (12 June 2015). The Expanding Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-205-96806-0. Daly, Mary (2011) What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

Social Politics,18(1):1-23. Daly, Mary and Lewis, Jane (2000). The concept of social care and the analysis of contemporary welfare states. British Journal of Sociology, 51(2):281-98. Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (2009).

The incomplete revolution: Adapting welfare states to women’s new roles. Cambridge: Polity Press. Ferragina, Emanuele and Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin (2015) “Determinants of a Silent (R)evolution:Understanding the Expansion of Family Policy in Rich OECD Countries”, Social politics 22 (1), 1–37.

Forbes, Scott, A Natural History of Families, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-691-09482-9 Foucault, Michel (1978). The History of Sexuality: Volume I: An Introduction. (New York: Vintage Books).

ISBN 978-0-679-72469-8 Gilroy, Paul Identity Belonging and the Critique of Pure Sameness in Gilroy, Paul (2000) Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line, (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), Ch.

I.3, pp. 97–133 Goody, Jack The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambridge University Press, 1980); translated into Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese. Mock, Douglas W., More Than Kin and Less Than Kind, (Belknap Press, 2004), ISBN 0-674-01285-2 Schneider, David M.

, American Kinship: a cultural approach (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). Tabak, I.; Mazur, J.; Granado, M.C.; Örkenyi, Á.; Zaborskis, A.; Aasvee, K.; Moreno, C. (2012). “Examining trends in parent-child communication in Europe over 12 years”.

The Journal of Early Adolescence. 32 (1): 26–54. doi:10.1177/0272431611419509. Retrieved January 8, 2014. Chevallier, Denis. “Famille et parenté: une bibliographie”. Terrain.revues.org (in French).

Retrieved January 8, 2014.

Morgan made a distinction between kinship systems that use classificatory terminology and those that use descriptive terminology. Classificatory systems are generally and erroneously understood to be those that “class together” with a single term relatives who actually do not have the same type of relationship to ego. (What defines “same type of relationship” under such definitions seems to be genealogical relationship. This is problematic given that any genealogical description, no matter how standardized, employs words originating in a folk understanding of kinship.) What Morgan’s terminology actually differentiates are those (classificatory) kinship systems that do not distinguish lineal and collateral relationships and those (descriptive) kinship systems that do. Morgan, a lawyer, came to make this distinction in an effort to understand Seneca inheritance practices. A Seneca man’s effects were inherited by his sisters’ children rather than by his own children.[41] Morgan identified six basic patterns of kinship terminologies:

Legal reforms to family laws have taken place in many countries during the past few decades. These dealt primarily with gender equality within marriage and with divorce laws. Women have been given equal rights in marriage in many countries, reversing older family laws based on the dominant legal role of the husband. Coverture, which was enshrined in the common law of England and the US for several centuries and throughout most of the 19th century, was abolished. In some European countries the changes that lead to gender equality were slower. The period of 1975–1979 saw a major overhaul of family laws in countries such as Italy,[126][127] Spain,[128] Austria,[129][129] West Germany,[130][131] and Portugal.[132] In 1978, the Council of Europe passed the Resolution (78) 37 on equality of spouses in civil law.[133] Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland. In 1985, a referendum guaranteed women legal equality with men within marriage.[134][135] The new reforms came into force in January 1988.[136] In Greece, in 1983, legislation was passed guaranteeing equality between spouses, abolishing dowry, and ending legal discrimination against illegitimate children.[137][138] In 1981, Spain abolished the requirement that married women must have their husbands’ permission to initiate judicial proceedings[139] the Netherlands,[140][141] and France [142] in the 1980s. In recent decades, the marital power has also been abolished in African countries that had this doctrine, but many African countries that were former French colonies still have discriminatory laws in their marriages regulations, such regulations originating in the Napoleonic Code that has inspired these laws.[139] In some countries (predominantly Roman Catholic) divorce was legalized only recently (e.g. Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Argentina (1987), Ireland (1996), Chile (2004) and Malta (2011)) although annulment and legal separation were options. Philippines still does not allow divorce. (see Divorce law by country). The laws pertaining to the situation of children born outside marriage have also been revised in many countries (see Legitimacy (family law)).

The total fertility rate of women varies from country to country, from a high of 6.76 children born/woman in Niger to a low of 0.81 in Singapore (as of 2015).[13] Fertility is low in most Eastern European and Southern European countries; and high in most Sub-Saharan African countries.[13]

As promised, John-David  Duggar and Abbie Burnett’s wedding preview is now available on the TLC website and TLC Go app (links below). You will be required to sign in with your TV provider. For those who don’t have TV service, TLC will air the wedding preview during a special 30-minute episode on November 27th and 28th.

Visit our Showtimes page for listings. John and Abbie’s Wedding Part 1 John and Abbie’s Wedding Part 2If you enjoy this blog, be sure to visit Ellie’s other blogs (NashvilleWife.com and BatesFamilyBlog.

com).Photo courtesy duggarfamily.com/John and Abbie Duggar

Dower is property given to the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control.[111]

A patriline (“father line”) is a person’s father, and additional ancestors that are traced only through males. One’s patriline is thus a record of descent from a man in which the individuals in all intervening generations are male. In cultural anthropology, a patrilineage is a consanguineal male and female kinship group, each of whose members is descended from the common ancestor through male forebears.

A traditional, formal presentation of the bride price at a Thai engagement ceremony.

the [conjugal] family organization, precisely to the extent that it was insular and heteromorphous with respect to the other power mechanisms, was used to support the great “maneuvers” employed for the Malthusian control of the birthrate, for the populationist incitements, for the medicalization of sex and the psychiatrization of its nongenital forms.

As it has been explained by Deleuze, Guattari and Foucault, as well as other philosophers and psychiatrists such as Laing and Reich, the patriarchal-family conceived in the West tradition serves the purpose of perpetuating a propertarian and authoritarian society.[69] The child grows according to the oedipal model, which is typical of the structure of capitalist societies,[70][71] and he becomes in turn owner of submissive children and protector of the woman.[68][72][73][74][75]

Partisanship and women’s political agency have been the main drivers for family policy change during the 1980s and 1990s in many countries. For the 2000s, however, the importance of these drivers has significantly declined. As societal preferences have undergone profound changes—to some extent driven by the activities of women’s equality movements, as well as by the experience of women’s employment—the policy preferences of voters have also changed. Electorates in western democracies increasingly want policies supporting “modern” family lifestyles which depend on women’s employment (Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser 2015). As political parties react to these changed policy preferences, the traditional differences in family policy positions between political parties decline. The extent to which this translates into support for gender equality, and how such equality might be defined, is as yet not decided. However, societal policy preferences, long believed to be set in stone, are undergoing profound changes; and public opinion increasingly matters for changing policies. The changed policy preferences are also mirrored in new political discourses that prioritise social investment and the preservation of the human capital of women, especially of those who are highly skilled. The expansion of family policies geared to supporting women’s employment and investment in children is very likely to continue in western democracies.(Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser 2015).[151]

Cousin: the most classificatory term; the children of uncles or aunts. One can further distinguish cousins by degrees of collaterality and by generation. Two persons of the same generation who share a grandparent count as “first cousins” (one degree of collaterality); if they share a great-grandparent they count as “second cousins” (two degrees of collaterality) and so on.

If two persons share an ancestor, one as a grandchild and the other as a great-grandchild of that individual, then the two descendants class as “first cousins once removed” (removed by one generation); if they shared ancestor figures as the grandparent of one individual and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as “first cousins twice removed” (removed by two generations), and so on.

Similarly, if they shared ancestor figures as the great-grandparent of one person and the great-great-grandparent of the other, the individuals class as “second cousins once removed”. Hence one can refer to a “third cousin once removed upwards.

Margaret Mead considers the family as a main safeguard to continuing human progress. Observing, “Human beings have learned, laboriously, to be human”, she adds: “we hold our present form of humanity on trust, [and] it is possible to lose it” … “It is not without significance that the most successful large-scale abrogations of the family have occurred not among simple savages, living close to the subsistence edge, but among great nations and strong empires, the resources of which were ample, the populations huge, and the power almost unlimited”[60]

“I’ve actually become more of a glitter guy because she’s a glitter girl.” -John DuggarJohn and Abbie couldn’t have looked any happier on their wedding day if they tried. This bride and groom were just so joyful to be getting married! Have you seen the 20-minute preview that TLC uploaded? The links are in our post from yesterday morning, and we shared a few highlights yesterday afternoon.

How do you think John and Abbie Duggar’s wedding compared to the other Duggar weddings?

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Uncle: parent’s brother, or male spouse of parent’s sibling Aunt: parent’s sister, or female spouse of parent’s sibling Nephew: sibling’s son, or spouse’s sibling’s son Niece: sibling’s daughter, or spouse’s sibling’s daughter

There is another measure for the degree degree of relationship, which is determined by counting up generations to the first common ancestor and back down to the target individual, which is used for various genealogical and legal purposes.[citation needed]

Many countries (particularly Western) have, in recent years, changed their family laws in order to accommodate diverse family models. For instance, in the United Kingdom, in Scotland, the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006 provides cohabitants with some limited rights.[61] In 2010, Ireland enacted the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010. There have also been moves at an international level, most notably, the Council of Europe European Convention on the Legal Status of Children Born out of Wedlock[62] which came into force in 1978. Countries which ratify it must ensure that children born outside marriage are provided with legal rights as stipulated in the text of this Convention. The Convention was ratified by the UK in 1981 and by Ireland in 1988.[63]

In 2015, Nicholas Eberstadt, political economist at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, described a “global flight from family” in an opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal.[167] Statistics from an infographic by Olivier Ballou showed that,[168]

Cousins of an older generation (in other words, one’s parents’ first cousins), although technically first cousins once removed, are often classified with “aunts” and “uncles.” Similarly, a person may refer to close friends of one’s parents as “aunt” or “uncle,” or may refer to close friends as “brother” or “sister,” using the practice of fictive kinship. English-speakers mark relationships by marriage (except for wife/husband) with the tag “-in-law.” The mother and father of one’s spouse become one’s mother-in-law and father-in-law; the female spouse of one’s child becomes one’s daughter-in-law and the male spouse of one’s child becomes one’s son-in-law. The term “sister-in-law” refers to three essentially different relationships, either the wife of one’s sibling, or the sister of one’s spouse, or, in some uses, the wife of one’s spouse’s sibling. “Brother-in-law” expresses a similar ambiguity. The terms “half-brother” and “half-sister” indicate siblings who share only one biological or adoptive parent.

Parents with child statue, Hrobákova street, Petržalka, Bratislava

2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Childlessness Familialism Family economics Household Nepotism Parent Stepfamily Voluntary childlessness References[edit] Citations[edit] Sources[edit]

While in many parts of the world family policies seek to promote a gender-equal organization of the family life, in others the male-dominated family continues to be the official policy of the authorities, which is also supported by law. For instance, the Civil Code of Iran states at Article 1105: “In relations between husband and wife; the position of the head of the family is the exclusive right of the husband”.[152]

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The state and church have been, and still are in some countries, involved in controlling the size of families, often using coercive methods, such as bans on contraception or abortion (where the policy is a natalist one—for example through tax on childlessness) or conversely, discriminatory policies against large families or even forced abortions (e.g., China’s one-child policy in place from 1978 to 2015). Forced sterilization has often targeted ethnic minority groups, such as Roma women in Eastern Europe,[119][120] or indigenous women in Peru (during the 1990s).[121]

One of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons biologically and socially. This can occur through the sharing of material substances (such as food); the giving and receiving of care and nurture (nurture kinship); jural rights and obligations; and moral and sentimental ties.[3][4] Thus, one’s experience of one’s family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a “family of orientation”: the family serves to locate children socially and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization.[5] From the point of view of the parent(s), the family is a “family of procreation”, the goal of which is to produce and enculturate and socialize children.[6][7] However, producing children is not the only function of the family; in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between two people, it is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household.[8][9][10]

In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children. As the basic unit for raising children, anthropologists generally classify most family organizations as matrifocal (a mother and her children); conjugal (a wife, her husband, and children, also called the nuclear family); avuncular (for example, a grandparent, a brother, his sister, and her children); or extended (parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent’s family). Sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo.

Dowry is property (money, goods, or estate) that a wife or wife’s family gives to her husband when the wife and husband marry.[110] Offering dowry was common in many cultures historically (including in Europe and North America), but this practice today is mostly restricted to some areas primarily in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh).

Elder abuse is “a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person.”[89] This definition has been adopted by the World Health Organization from a definition put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK. Laws protecting the elderly from abuse are similar to, and related to, laws protecting dependent adults from abuse.

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Different property regimes exist for spouses. In many countries, each marriage partner has the choice of keeping their property separate or combining properties. In the latter case, called community property, when the marriage ends by divorce each owns half. In lieu of a will or trust, property owned by the deceased generally is inherited by the surviving spouse.

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Family Pictures With Baby On Bed